Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
energy conversion
energy can channge forms
potential energy
capacity to do work
kinetic energy
energy of motion, actively performing work
first law of thermodynamics
the total amount of energy(+ matter) in a closed system remains constant. aka - energy can't be created nor destroyed.
the universe is what type of a system?
living things are what type of a system?
second law of thermodynamics
in every energy conversion, some energy is converted to heat energy that is lost to the surroundings, and thus cannot be used for work - aka, "you can't break even"
every energy conversion does what?
increases the entropy of the universe
no energy conversion is. . .?
100% efficient
anabolic reactions
process that build complex molecules from simpler ones
ex. condensation
catabolic reactions
processes the break down complex complex molecules into simpler ones
ex. hydrolysis
free energy
energy available to do work in a chemical reaction
free energy depends on?
bond energies and concentrations of reactants and products
bond energy
energy required to break a bond; value depends on the bond
left undisturbed, reactions will reach?
dynamic equilibrium - when the relative concentrations of reactants and products is correct
cells manipulate relative concentrations in many ways, so that. . .
equilibrium is rare for key reacitons
exergonic reactions
the products have less free energy than reactants
the difference in energy relesed and is available to do work
exerginic reactions are favored by?
thermodynamically favored = they are spontaneous
catabolic reactions are usually?
endergonic reactions
the products have more free energy than the reactants
the difference in free energy must be supplied
endergonic reactions are not favored by?
not thermodynamically favored, thus, not spontaneous
endergonic is coupled w/ exergonic, together they have. . ?
a net exergonic nature
coupling of exergonic and endergonic requires that the rxns share?
a common intermediate(s)
anabolic reactions are usually
the main energy currency in cells
is a nucleotide w/adenine base, ribose sugar, and a chain of 3 phosphate groups
the maount of energy released depends on?
cocentrations of reactants and products - generally 30 kj/mol
phosphorylated compounds
the inorganic phosphate removed from ATP transferred onto another compound rather than being immediately released
the energy tranfers in cellular rxns is often accomplish through
transfer of a phosphate group from ATP
making ATP involves
an endergonic condensation reaction
ATP is typically created in
catabolic reactions (exothermic)
ATP is typically used in?
anabolic reactions
cells maintain high levels of?
ATP relative to ADP
ratio - 10 ATP: 1 ADP
the of use and production of ATP is?
10 million molecules per second
redox reactions are used to?
harvest energy from some chemicals. also used for energy transfer.
electrons can be used for?
energy transfer