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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what kind of circulation does a protozoan
protozoan (single-celled animal-like protista) employs simple diffusion.

cnidarians and hydras have no specialized circulatory system either since their body walls are two cells thick and thus there is direct contact with either the internal or external environment.

arthropods have open circulatory systems, meaning that their tissues are directly exposed to the blood; blood is circulated by body movements.

annelids have closed circulatory systems; blood circulates through vessels by the power of the dorsal vessel which acts like a heart. has aortic loops.
parts of the heart
the left part of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood into lung chambers (pulmonary circulation) via the pulmonary arteries.

the right side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood to the upper and lower body via the aorta.

the two upper chambers are the atria and the two lower chambers are called the ventricles.
three types of blood vessels
arteries, veins, capillaries

arteries: thick-walled, muscular, elastic, transfer blood away from the heart (oxygenated)

veins: thinly-walled, inelastic, conducts deoxygenated blood toward the heart. circulation in the veins relies less on the pumping of the heart and more on the compression of skeletal muscles.

capillaries: smallest diameter of all vessels, blood cells pass through single-file.
lymphatic system
a second circulatory system which transports excess interstitial fluid (lymph)to the cardiovascular system. lymph nodes on lymph vessels contain leukocytes, phagocytic cells which filter the lymph (the interstitial fluid) and remove foreign particles and pathogens.
55 percent liquid
45 percent cellular

liquid: nutrients, salt, gases, wastes, hormones

cellular: erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
red blood cells: one erythrocyte has millions of hemoglobin; each hemoglobin can carry 4 oxygens. form from stem cells in bone marrow, mature and circulate for 120 days

white blood cells:
lymphocytes: antibodies (B) and T cells
other white blood cells: phagocytize foreign matter

platelets: cell fragments that form clots, lack nuclei
functions of cardiovascular system
transport of gases, transport of nutrients and wastes, clotting mechanims, and immunological reactions
transport of gases
erythrocytes in the blood carry oxygen and co2 on their hemoglobin. each hemoglobin can adhere to 4 molecules of oxgyen.
transport of nutrients and waste
amino acids and sugars are absorbed into intestinal capillaries; they are transported throughout the body. metabolic waste (water, urea, carbon dioxide) is also absorbed and diffuses into capillaries and are taken to excretory organs.
clotting mechanism
when platelets come into contact with exposed collagen, a platelet plug is formed which causes secretion of thromboplastin, which activates prothrombin into thrombin, which in turn converts fibrinogen into fibrin, which coats the area and traps blood cells, preventing lethal loss of blood.
immunological reactions
produced by leukocytes: white blood cells, ie lymphocytes. recruit antibodies and cells that phagocytize.

body recognizes between self and non-self (antigens)
non-self entities.
body has ability to remember antigens previously encountered.
humoral immunity

cell-mediated immunity
response which produces antibodies

combat against viral and fungal infection
humoral immunity
production of antibodies, aka Igs, immunoglobins, which tag antigens for removal: leukocytes phagocytize. antigodies can also cause the antigen to agglutinate to facilitate removal.
active immunity vs. passive immunity
both are humoral immunities.

active immunity is when the organism itself produces antibodies during an immune response, which can be conferred with a vaccine.

passive immunity occurs when antibodies produced by one organism are passed onto another organism, such as from a mother to a fetus. this does not last long; only as long as antibodies circulate. usually not very specific.
immunological response:
nonspecific defense mechanisms

skin, macrophages, passages, inflammatory response, interferons
skin is a physical barrier against infection. sweat from pores secretes enzyme which attacks bacterial walls.

passages are lined with mucous-coated epithelial cells trap foreign substances

macrophages (stationary leukocytes) phagocytize foreign bacteria

inflammatory response: when cells are damaged, recruits histamine, which causes blood vessels to dilate and increases blood flow to region so that granulocytes can phagocytize antigens.

Interferons are produced when cell is under viral attack. interferons diffuse to other cells to prevent spread of virus.
allergic responses
immune responses due to inappropriate reactions to foods or pollen, causes production of antibodies and histamine
rejection of transplants
when organ tissue is detected as an antigen, transplant is rejected. immuno-suppressing drugs can prevent this.
ABO blood types:

A type
B type
AB type
O type
A type has A antigens and produces B antibodies.

B type has B antigens and produces A antibodies.

AB type has both A and B antigens and produces no antibodies.

O type has no antigens and produces A and B antibodies.
Blood donations
The donor's blood must have no antigens that the recipient has antibodies for.

Type AB is the universal recipient and type O is the universal donor.
erythroblastosis fetalis and Rh factor
the Rh factor is another antigen that can be present on the surface of red blood cells. If a mother is Rh- and is sensitized by entering Rh+ fetal blood cells, if she has another child with Rh+ blood cells, her antibodies may cause erythroblastosis fetalis, severe anemia.
why can erythroblastosis not occur due to ABO mismatch?
because A and B antibodies are not allowed to cross the placenta.
circulation system in plants is called
plant translocation occurs in
stem; in vascular bundles composed of phloem, cambium and xylem.


phloem made up of outer part of vascular bundle. thin-walled cells: bark. transports nutrients down the stem. if tree is girdled, will die because phloem connections severed.

cambium cells are actively dividing becoming new xylem or phloem.

xylem cells are hollow and thick-walled. carry water and minerals up the stem by capillary action, vacuum created by evaporation from leaves (transpiration pull), and by root pressure.
Layers of plant root from outermost to innermost.
epidermis, cortex, phloem, cambium, xylem
root functions to
absorb water and minerals from the soil through root hairs which have increased surface area for absorption.
Regions of growth in plant
meristem (undifferentiated plant cells) are located in the cambium layer for lateral growth and at tips of roots and stems for elongation
functions of lymphatic system
The lymphatic system is comprised of three interrelated functions: (1) Removal of excess fluids from body tissues, (2) Absorption of fatty acids and subsequent transport of fat, chyle, to the circulatory system and (3) production of immune cells (such as lymphocytes, monocytes, and antibody producing cells called plasma cells).