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74 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Please list the tasks that the cells need to do in order to survive.
1. Consume Energy
2. Produce Waste Products
3. Interact w/ Other Cells
4. Change their enviornment/adopt to their enviornment
5. Defend themselves from the bacteria/enemies/diseases
6. Maintain homeostasis
7. Grow and develop
8. They need to protect their DNA
There are 8 of them
What are the levels of organization in complex living things?
Organism, Organ System, Organ, Tissue, Specialized Cell
5 of them
What is an organism?
a single living thing
no hint
What is an organ system?
A group of organs that work together to accomplish a task
no hint
What is a organ?
A group of tissues working together to accomplish a task
No hint
What is a tissue?
A group of cells with the same function trying to accomplish the same task.
no hint
What is a specialized cell?
A cell that has a particular job or function that they have to do.
think about function of the cell...
What are examples of organ systems?
Skeletal System, nervous system, immune system, reprodctive system, endocrine system,
listed 5 in class
What are examples of organs?
Lungs, liver, stomach, heart, pancreas, skin
listed 6 in class
What are examples of tissues?
Muscle, Bone
listed 2 in class
How is the image on the light microscope created?
The light reflects on mirrors to create the image that you see.
think reflection...
Why is the light microscope also known as a compound microscope?
It has 2 lenses
What are the 2 types of electron microscopes? How do they differ?
SEM (scanning electron microscope
TEM (transmission electron microscope)
They vary because SEM takes pictures of the surface of the item, while TEM takes a more magnified view (but the substance must be dead.
How are the images created on an electron microscope?
Electrons are shot through a thin sample, or they bound off of thicker substances
(the electrons form the image)
What are the beliefs in the cell theory?
1. all organisms are made up of one or more cells
2. cells are the basic unit strucutre and function of living organisms
3. cells arise from pre-existing cells (because to get more cells division needs to take place)
3 of them
Which was created first the TEM, SEM, or the light microscope?
light microscope
no hint
What experiment has been done to try to figure out how the first cell came into existance?
In a room they reconstructed what the begenning of the world was like, then they tried to figure out how the cells could have formed
What was the result of the experiment on how the first cell came into existence?
Little bubles and amino acids formed
No Hint
In a light microsocpe, what are the 3 darkest points?
Chromatin, Chromosomes, and DNA
no hint
What does the cell/plasma membrane look like on the outside?
2 layers of phosopholipids a boundary of proteins
think parts of the membrane, structured together...
What are the four things that all cells have in common? Are there any exceptions?
1. have DNA
exception: red blood cells
2. have ribosomes
3. have a cell membrane
4. capable of cell division
one exception
Where is the site of photosynthesis?
What is the cell membrane made out of?
all membranes
What happens to cells over time?
they deteriorate.
no hint
What happens to your blood over the period of time of 5 months?
all your blood cells are different than they were 5 months before b/c your cells have deteriorated, and new ones have been created (through cell division)
no hint
What are the 2 basic types of cells?
25) Prokaryote and Eukaryote Cells
The prokaryote cells do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, while the eukaryote cells do.
What are examples of the 2 basic types of cells?
Prokaryote- bacterial Eukaryote- animal, plant, fungus, protest
1 pro
4 eu
What is a pro and a con in prokaryotes because it does not protect the nucleus
pro: it is easier to access
con: it is easier to destroy
think... access, denial
29) List the following from largest to smallest: virus, diameter of DNA double helix, eukaryote cells, atoms, proteins, mitochondrian, most bacteria.
Eukaryote Cells
Most Bacteria
Diameter of DNA double helix
most bacteria is...
prokaryote is ... to eukaryote
What is an organelle and what do the parts of the word mean?
Def: a specialized structure that preforms spcific functions vital to the life of a cell
Mean: Elle- little, small
Organ- Organ
Combine: Little Organe
elle (girl)
What does the term membrane-bound mean?
outside of the cell
Katie F.
Where is the DNA located and what does the organelle that it is located in do?
DNA is located in the nucleus
control center for the cell
no hint
What is the nuclear membrane made out of?
no hint
What is the purpose of the pores in the nuclear membrane?
Allow things in and out, control traffic that has access to your DNA
What do lysosomes have a sack of?
hydrolytic enzymes
_____ enzymes
What could happen to the cell if the lysosomes in the cell were destroyed?
The cell may be destroyed.
No hint.
What different types of things are sent to the lysosomes and why are they sent there?
Old, tired, worn out organelles for recycling
Dangerous organelles
2 types
What cell are lysosomes not often found in, and what part of that cell helps with the function of recycling, in that type of cell?
Plant cell; Large Vacuole
no hint
What is an example of a dangerous enzyme being helpful for you?
seperation of your fingers
really little
What does ER stand for?
Endoplasmic Reticulum
no hint
What does the ER do?
Channels that serve as paths for the transport of materials throughout the cell.
How can you receive more smooth ER?
Through the consumption of a lot of toxic items
no hint
What are the 2 types of ER and what are the functions of each?
Rough ER and Smooth ER
Rough ER: ribosomes, site of protein synthesis
Smooth ER: lipid synthesis, detoxification of drugs and poisons (especially in living cells)
no hint
What is tolerance (in relation to enzymes), what is an example?
Tolerance is when more enzymes are produced to break that substance down
Eg: alcohol, pain killers
no hint
What si the ER membrane made out of?
all membranes
What structure in larger life is similar to the GOlogi Apparatus?
The post office
no hint
What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
Figure out where things are going, and then to sent them off in the right direction.
They create vesicles for transportation.
What is the cytoskeleton built out of?
Microtubles & Microfilaments
(micro- small; filaments- hair)
2 things
How is the cytoskeleton similar to a whole bunch of zip lines?
~ you can travel on a zipline for transportation
~ you can grip onto two or more ziplines for stability
2 ways
How are Flagella and Cilia similar?
they are both involved with movement, they are both located on the outside of a cell.
2 ways
What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
To shape and organize the cell.
no hint
What is the difference between flagella and cilia in a picture?
Flagella- a long, whip-like structure, often one
Cilia- short hairs, often found in bunches
length, quantity
What type of cells is the centriole found in?
Animal Cells
plant or animal
How is the centriole like a fishing rod?
It can sit still, throws out fibers, hooks on to different parts of the cells
tug fish- each cell needs ribosomes
extend out and shrink back
casting, tugging, exending
How is the centriole similar to the cytoskeleton?
thye both move things around, and they are made up of the same thing
2 ways
How many centrioles to you have in a cell?
one is enough, no more than 2
(you have 2 when the cell is dividing)
no hint
What is the function of the centriole?
helps to move parts of the cell around
no hint
What does a centriole look like in a picture?
a bunch of rods
star shape on the end if sideways view
end view, any other view
What features are specific to plant cells?
1. Cell Wall
2. Chloroplast
3. Large Vacuole
3 of them
What features are specific to animal cells?
1. Centriole
2. Lysosomes
2 features`
What color is chloroplast? Why is it that color?
Because of chlorophyll
color of most plants
What is the function of chloroplast?
Site of photosynthesis
Where glucose is chemically synthesized
it is in plants
What is the equation for photosynthesis in chloroplast? What equation is it the reverse of?
6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 +6O2
Carbon Dioxide + Water --> Glucose + Oxygen
Reverse of cellular respiration
A+B--> C+D
What type of organism is chloroplast found in?
photosynthesis organism
function of chloroplast is...
What type of cell(s) can chloroplast be found in?
protist or plant
animal or plant and...
What does an image of chloroplast look like?
have these things inside that look like poker chips, green
the inside
What other organelle is similar to it in function?
no hint
What are the functions of the large central vacuole?
Storage and Protection
2 things
What does the large vacuole store?
Anthing found in Fertalizer
Toxic Chemicals
6 things
How does the large vacuole protect the plant?
Contains chemicals poisonous to animals/predators to repel the omnivores from eating them
what would try to eat something with a large vacuole...
What type of cell is the large vacuole the largest part of that cell?
a mature plant cell
animal or plant
What are the functions of the cell wall?
1. Protection
2. Organizes + Shapes and organism
3. Regulates materials entering + exiting w/help from the cell membrane
3 ways
What is the cell wall made out of?
cellulose--> fiber
no hint
If you want something high in fiber what should you eat?
plants, because they are surrounded by fiber.
no hint