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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what environment allows neurons to move freely?
___ tonic gains water
hydrogen bonds
hydrogen atom bonded to big electronegative atom
biggest organelle in cell?
unwound DNA
tightly coiled DNA
____tonic lose water
what structure is within the nucleus?
lysosome function
stomach of cell; they digest food
rough ER are
ribosones (proteins)
smooth ER function
synthesizes lipids ((( STEROIDS))) & detoxify body of poison
3 types of reactions
1. synthesis
2. exchange
3. composition
Eukaryote contains?
cell organelles
prokaryotic contain?
ribosomes NOT organelles but carry out same function
2 types of organelles
1. nucleus
2. ribosomes
what is the nucleus?
contains DNA that controls metabolic functions & structural characteristics
nucleus contains what 4 things?
2. nuclear pores
3. nucleolus
4. nuclear envelope
what is chromatin? & what is it made up of?
condenses down to form chromosomes;;;

it is made up of DNA & proteins
what is located in the nucleolus?
RNA production
what are the 3 functions of the nuclear envelope?
1.maintain shape of nucleus 2.provide chromatin attachment sites
3. funnel substances into/away from nuclear pores
what are ribosomes?
site of protein synthesis
several ribosomes making protein are called?
ER stands for?
endoplasmic reticulum
what is the function of Golgi apparatus?
modifies, processes & packages ((( cells UPS)))))
what is the valuole?
membrane enclosed sack used for storage OR transit
digestive vacuoles are called?
_____ may have developed from endcytosis
energy organelles
what is the structure of Mitochondria?
1. double membrane;
2. inner membrane folded into Cristae
3. inner space filled with Matrix
what are 2 functions of mitochondria?
1. make ATP
2. give off heat as secondary product
what is the structure of Chloroplasts
1. double membrane; inside
2. flat membrane discs contains thylakoids
2. stroma
what is Stroma in chloroplasts?
fluid filled space
thykaloids in chloroplasts stack into?
name the 2 energy organelles in cells
1. mitochondria
2. chloroplasts
name a function of rough ER
make more membrane
Name the cell::

Converts chemical energy of foods into chemical energy of the molecule
inside the chloroplast;

the network of interconnected sacs are called?
what is is cytoskeleton & what is the function?
network of protein fibers thru out cytoplasm;;;

function as structural support & cell mobility
what do cristae help mitochondria do?
increase membrane size; enhance ability to make ATP
what 3 fibers make up cytoskeleton?
1. microfilaments AKA actin filaments (smallest)
2 intermediate filaments
3.. microtubules (largest)
What is the function of microfilaments AKA actin filaments?
rods made of actin &form 3D network inside to give shape
make DNA from DNA is called?
make DNA from RNA called?
make RNA from protein called?
if a nucleic acid is in presence of base (OH) then it is?

if a nucleic acid is in presence of acid (H)
deOXYribose (( missing oxygen))))

if phosphate group attaches to nucleic acid what property does it give it?
polar; positive & Negative
_____ is believed to be related to basal bodies that anchor flagellum & cilia into cell membrane
what is the function of centriole?
assist in microtubule during cell (division) reproduction
what do nuclear pores contain & what is the function?
series of channel proteins & Modify things coming thru the

what is ER attached to?
2 types of membrane & what is the function
1. vesicle- transports things to cell
2. vacuole- store things in cell
what cell swells up twice size & breaks off becoming 2
what forms fluid mosaic model of cell membrane?
phospholipids & proteins
what is the function of basil body?
anchor the flagella & cilia in membrane
what happens when a bilayer is formed?
polar heads (hydrophillic) on outside & hydrophobic tails on inside
what substances are found in plasma membrane?
carbs & cholesterol
___ carry out enzymatic function by forming channels & help molecules across the membrane
passive transport
movement across membrane without use of energy
what are examples of passive transport?
diffusion, osmosis, filtration, facilitated diffusion
gap junctions do what?
communicate btwn cells
what does filtration do?
filter (((think coffee filter))

allows some things to enter
what is facilitated diffusion?
2 molecules want to cross. the 1 that can helps the 1 that cant
endottosis & exocytosis are examples of?
active transport
what is energy
capacity to do work & put matter in MOTION
what are the 2 types of energy & what do they do
-kinetic=put in action
-potential=store it
1.chemical energy is stored in ____
2 electrical energy refers to the movement of ______
3. mechanical energy refers to ____
4. Radiant energy travels in ___
1 bonds of chemicals
2 charged particles
3 energy involved moving matter
4 lin waves; Electromagnetic spectrum I.E light, radio waves, xray

transferring energy, some energy is lost as HEAT.
entrophy measures
increase in heat
what forms ATP
RNA + adenine + 2 phosphates
what are enzymes?
substances that regulate & SPEED rate of biochemical reactions
enzymes have 2 parts:

1. Apoenzyme
2. Cofactor OR coenzyme

whats inside of each
1. Apoenzyme= protein
2. Cofactor =metal
OR coenzyme=vitamin
what are substrates ((((think puzzle pieces)))))
molecules fit into enzyme active site
the entry of substrate alter the shape of enzymes. what is this called?
induced fit