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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
atom
basic unit of matter
nucleus
center of the atom
contains protons(+,) neutrons(neutral), and electrons(-)
electron
negatively charged particle
element
a pure substance of one type of atom
isotopes
atoms of the same element but a different number of neutrons
because they have the same number of electrons they have the same chemical properties
compound
a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in defenite properties
ionic bond
attraction between oppositly charged ions
ions
positive and negative charged atoms
covalent bond
when electrons are shared between atoms
molecule
smallest unit of most compounds
polar molecule
a molecule in which the charges are unevenly distributed
cohesion
attraction between molecules of the same substance
adhesion
attraction between molecules of a different substance
mixture
two or more elements or compounds physically mixed together but not chemically combined
solution
a mixture of two or more substances in which all the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed
solute
the substance that is dissolved
solvent
the substance in which the solute dissolves
suspensions
nondissolved material
pH scale
to indicate if a substance is acidic or basic
acid
compound that forms hydrogen atoms in a solution
base
compound that produces hydroxide ions in a slotuion
buffer
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp sudden changes
macromolecules
giant molecules
polymerization
large compounds are built by joining smaller ones together
molomers
smaller units of compounds
polymers
monomers joined together
four groups of organic compounds
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins
carbohydrates
main source of energy in human body, made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
monosaccharides
single sugar molecules
polysaccharides
large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
lipids
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms- includes fats, oils, and waxes
can be used to store energy
saturated
when carbon atoms in a lipid chain is single bonded with another carbon atom
unsaturated
when carbon atoms in a lipid chain is single bonded with another carbon atom
nucleic acids
macromolecules that contain hydogen, oxgen, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus
polymers assempbled from monomers called nucleotides
store and transmit genetic information- DNA, RNA
nucleotides
5 carbon sugar
phosphate group
and nitrogenous base
2 kinds of nucleic acids
ribonucleic rna, or deoxyribonucleic dna
Proteins
macromolecules that contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. proteins are polymers of molecules called amino acids
amino acids
compounds with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end
functions of proteins
help carry out chemical reactions
transport small molecules in and out of cells
fight diseases
4 levels of organization of proteins
sequence of amino acids in a protein chain
amino acids in the chain can be twisted or folded
the chain itself is folded
chemical reaction
a process that changes one set of chemcials into another
reactants
elements or compounds that are entered into a chemical reaction
products
chemicals or compounds produced by the chemical reaction
energy changes
chemical reations that release energy often occur spontaneously
chemical reactions that absorb energy will not occur without a source of energy
activation energy
energy that is needed to get a reacttion started
catalyst
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction,by lowering activation energy,(catalyst- made by cells)
enzymes
proteins that act as biological catalysts
speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells by lowering activation enrgies
substrates
reactant of a enzyme-catalyst reaction
calorie
when food is burned, the energy content of the food is converted to heat whcih is measured in terms of calories
nutrition
study of food and its effects the body
nutrient
substances in food that supply the energy and raw materials your body uses for growth, repair, and mainteneance
nutrients that your body needs
water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals
Water
most important nutrient, every cell in the body needs water because many of the body's processes take place in water.
simple carbohydrates
sugars in fruits, honey, and sugar cane
complecx carbohydrates
starches in grains, potatoes, and vegetables
fats
are formed from fatty acids and glycerol- lipid
when a person eats more food than is needed they are stored as fat, used to protect body organs, and insulate the body
essential fatty acids
fats your body needs to produce cell membranes and certain hormones
essential amino acids
body is able to synthesize only 12/20 amino acids used to make proteins. The other 8 are essential amino acids
vitamins
organic molecules that help regulate body processes
2 types of vitamins
fat soluble and water soluble
minerals
inorganic nutrients that the body needs
digestive system includes
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
function of the digestive system
help convert foods into simpler
mouth
mechanical process(physical breakdown of large pieces of food)-chewing
teeth
cts, tears, and crushes the food into small fragments
saliva
moistens the food and makes it easier to chew
begins the process of chemical digestion
amylase
enzyme that breaks the chemical bonds in starches and releases sugars.
food pyramid
1. fats, oils, n sweets
2. milk, yogurt, and cheese
3. meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and nut
4. vegetable
5. fruit
6. bread, cereal, rice, and pasta
esophagus
tongue and throat muscles push the food down the throat through esophagus- food tube into the stomach
peristalsis
contractions that move the food through the esophagus
stomach
large muscular sac that churns and mixes the food u swallowed
chemical digestion
inside stomach there is
mucus that lubricates and protects the stomach wall
hydrochloric acid which makes it very acidic
acid activayes pepsin- an enzyme that begins the digestion of protein
mechanical digestion
chyme-mixture produced by churning and mixing fluids and foods
small intestine
digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place
pancreas
a gland that serves three important functions
1. produce hormones that regulate blood sugar levels
2. produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
3. produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acids
liver
large organ located to the right of the stomach
produces bile, a fluid filled with lipids and salts
villi
provide an enourmous surface area for absoption of nutrient molecules
large intestine
remove water from the undigested material that is left