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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a process of a neuron specialized to pick up messages and transmit them toward the cell body
a long extension from the cell body of a neuron that carries an electrochemical message away from the cell body toward another neuron or effector
a part of a neuron that contains the organelles and nucleus needed to maintain the cells
cell body
a region of exposed axon between Schwann cells forming a myelin sheath
node of ranvier
a type of glial cell i nt e peripheral nervous system that forms the myelin sheath by wrapping around the axon many times
Schwann cell
an insulationg layer around axons that carry nerve impulses over relatively long distances that is composed of multiple wrappings of the plasma membrane of certain glial cells
myelin sheath
variety of specialized cells that perform support services like stimulate cell growth, divide and fill in gaps if a neuron dies, and make insulation (myelin)
glial cells
free nerve endings that end on special cells that also sense light touch
merkel disk
common on the hairless, very sensitive areas of skin, suck as the lips, nipples, and fingertips that tell us exactly where we have been touched
meissener's corpuscles
consists of onion-like layers of tissue surrounding a nerve ending and are scattered in the deeper layers of skin and the underlying tissue. the respond only when the pressure is first applied and are important in sensing vibration
pacinian corpuscles
encapsulated endings that respond to continuous pressure
ruffini corpuscles
branched tips of dendrites of sensory neurons that sense pain, heat, and cold
free nerve endings
senses light touch by detecting the bending of hairs
free never endings wrapped around hair
outer layer of the eye that protects the eyeball
transparent dome of tissue forming the outer layer a tthe front of the eye that refeacts light, focusing it on the retina
pigmented layer containing blood vessels that absorbs stray light and deliveres nutrients and oxygen to tissues of eye
encircles lins; contains the ciliary muscles which controls shape of lens and secretes aqueous humor
ciliary body
colored part of the eye that regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil
opening a tthe center of the iris that is the opening for incoming light
layer of tissue that contains the photoreceptors (rods and cones) that receives light and generates neural messages
photoreceptor responsible for black and white vision and vision in dim light
photoreceptor that is responsible for color vision and visual activity
small pit in the retina that has a high concentration of cones and provides detailed color vision
transparent, semispherical body of tissue behind the iris and pupil that fine focuses light onto the retina
clear fluid found between the cornea and the lens that refracts light and helps maintain shape of the eyeball
aqueous humor
gelatinous substance found within the chamber behind the lens that also refracts light and helps maintain shape of the eyeball
vitreous humor
group of axons from the eye to the brain that transmits impulses from the retina to the brain
optic nerve
fleshy, funnel-shaped part of the ear protruding from the side of the head that collects and directs sound waves
canal between the pinna and tympanic membrane that directs sound to the middle ear
external auditory canal
membrane spanning the end of the external auditory canal that vibrates in response to sound waves
eardrum (tympanic membrane)
three tiny bones of the middle ear that amplify the vibrations of the eardrum and transmit vibrations to inner ear
hammer (malleus), anvil (incus), and stirrup (stapes)
a tube that connects the middle ear with the throat and allows equalization of pressure in middle ear with external air pressure
eustachian tube
fluid-filed, bony, snail-shaped chamber that houses organ of Corti and has openings called oval window and round window
contains hair cells and is the organ for hearing
organ of Corti
membrane between the middle and inner ear that the stapes presses against and transmits the movements of the stapes to the fluid in the inner ear
oval window
membrane at the lower end of the lower canal in the cochlea that relieves pressure created byt he movements of the oval window
round window
fluid-filled chambers and canals that monitor position and movement of the head
vestibular apparatus
two fluid-filled chambers that maintain static equilibrium
three fluid-filled chambers oriented at right angles to one another and maintain dynamic equilibrium
semicircular canals
controls heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, body temperature, and food intake; is a center for emotions
a bridge between higher and lower brain centers
coordinates sensory-motor voluntary movement and stores memory of learned motor patterns
contains autonomic centers for heart rate and digestive activites; relays sensory information to thalamus
medulla oblongata
contains sensory areas for skin senses, vision, hearing, olfaction; motor areas for voluntary control of movementl association areas for interpreting sensation, langueage, thinking, decision making
allows left and right cerebral hemispheres to communicate with one another
corpus callosum
processes all sensory information; relays information to appropriate higher brain centers