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27 Cards in this Set

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Cell Theory
1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. Cells are the smallest living things, the basic units of organization of all organisms. 3. Cells arise only by division of a perviously existing cell.
5 things a cell can do
1. Take in energy and convert it from one form to another
2. Can store genetic information
3. Use energy to build and maintain their structure
4.take in oxygen and food. Release carbon dioxide and waste
5. Reproduce themselves
two types of electron microscpoes
1. Transmission e- microscope – electrons are transmitted through the material**
2. Scanning e- microscope – beams the e- to the surface of the material.
surface area-to-volume ratio
as a cell’s size increases, its volume increases much faster than its surface area. It can be overcome by adaptive mechanicisms
where are microtubules present?
microtubule organizing center
what enables adjacent plant and animal cells to stick together?
Plant: middle lamella
animal in centrioles
how do neighboring plant and animal cells communicate?
Plant communication: planmodesmate
animal: Gap junctions
what are vacoules used for?
storage
what makes up the cell membrane?
phospholipid bilayer
4 functions of transmembrane proteins
transporters
enzymes
cell surface
receptors
identity markers
define diffusion
The net movement of molecules from a higher concentration or a lower one.
define equilibrium
When the net movement of molecules no longer changes
4 things that influence the rate of diffusion and tell HOW they influence it.
1. Size of molecule - larger the molecule, slower it will diffuse. Vice versa
2. Temperature. Temp up, diffuse faster
3. Permeability of membrane - onnly certain molecules can pass across
4. Steeper of concentration - large gradient, diff. Faster vice versa
Define osmosis
Movement of water from higher concentration to lower conc. Across semi-permeable membrane.
Understand hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic and how to apply them to solutions
Hypertonic - contains more solutes
hypotonic - contains less solutes
isotomic - contains equal amounts of solutes
What is osmotic pressure
The measure of solute concentration
Diffusion requires no ENERGY and always moves DOWN a concentration gradient. List the 4 types.
1. Regulation diffusion
2. Osmosis
3. Diffusion of ions in and out of cells
4. Facilitated diffusion via transport proteins
How do cells take up/ get rid of large particles?
Endocytosis - takes it up
exocytosis - gets rid
What are the three types of endocytosis
Phagocytosis- cell forms food vacuole to eat bacteria
Pinocytosis - small droplets of liquid
Receptor-Mediated
What is respiration
Process by which organisms break down their food and get ATP energy
What are the four parts of respiration?
1. Glycolysis
2. Oxidation of pyruvate
3. Kreb’s cycle
4. Electron transport chain
How many NADHs are formed during glycolysis? How many net ATPs are formed
2,2
What is it called when you form ATP directly from a chemical reaction
Substrate phosphorolation
If no oxygen is present, what process takes over?
anaerobic respiration AKA fermentation
How many ATPs do you get from each a. NADH and b. FADH2?
a. 2.5 b. 1.5
What are cytochromes
Protein pigments that serve as e- carriers in transport chains of photosynthesis and cellular respiration
What is chemiosmosis?
The passage of high-energy electrons along the electons transport chain, which is coupled to the pumping of protons across a membrane and the return of protons to the original side of the membrane through ATP synthase, driving the production of ATP.