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95 Cards in this Set

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Rose-shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis
The cells of both land plants and charophyceans have rosette-synthesizing complexes. Arrays of proteins in the plasma membrane that synthesize the cellulose microfibrils of the cell walls.
Peroxisome enzymes
Both contain enzymes that help minimize the loss of organic products as a result of photorespiration.
Structure of flagellated sperm.
Both are resemblant of each other.
Formation of phragmoplast
The synthesis of new cross-walls (cell plates) during cell division involves the formation of a phragmoplast, an alignment of cytoskeletal elements and Golgi-derived vesicles across the midline of the dividing cell.
In charophyceans, a layer of durable polwmer prevents exposed zygotes from drying out.
Consists of polymers called polyesters and waxes.
Vascular tissue
Cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients thorughout the plant body.
nonvascular plants
Seedless vascular plants
Lycophytes and pterophytes
Embryo packaged with a supply of nutrients inside a protective coat.
A huge clade of all flowering plants. Seeds develop inside chambers called ovaries which originate within flowers and mature into fruits.
Liverworts, hornworts, mosses. All nonvascular plants.
A protonema produces one or more buds, each with an apical meristem that generates a gamete-producing structure
Gametophytes are anchored by long tubular single cells (in liverworts and hornworts), or filaments of cells (in mosses)
Embedded in the archegonium and absorbs nutrients from the gametophyte.
Stalk, conducts these materials to the sproangium also called a capsule
Uses materials from the seta to produce spores by meiosis.
An immature capsule has a protective cap of gametophyte tissue which is shed when the capsule is mature.
The upper part of the capsule features a ring of toothlike structures. Specialized for gradual spore discharge, taking advantage of periodic wind gusts that can carry spores long distances.
Support photosynthesis by allowing the exchange of Co2 and O2 between the outside air and the sporophyte interior
One wetland moss is especially widespread, forming extensive deposits of partially decayed organic material.
Conducts most of the water and minerals. Includes tracheids, tube-shaped cells that carry water and minerals up from roots.
Includes living sugar-conducting cells arranged into tubes that distribute sugars, amino-acids, and other organic materials.
Organs that anchor vascular plants and enable them to absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
Organs that increase the surace area of vascular plants, thereby capturing more solar energy for photosynthesis.
Small, usually spine shaped leaves with a single vein
Leaves with a highly branched vascular system.
Pollen grains
Contain the male gametophytes of seed plants.
The transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules.
Gymnosperm, cone bearing plants, which include such trees as pines, firs, and redwoods.
An angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction
starting at the base of the flower, usually green and enclose the flower before it opens.
Brightly colored in most flowers and aid in attracting pollinators
The microsporophylls, produce microspores that give rise to pollen grains containing male gametophytes.
terminal sac
the megasporophylls, which make megaspores and their products, female gametophytes.
at the tip of the carpel, recieves pollen.
leads to the ovary
at the base of the carpel, which contains one or more ovules
Double fertilization
one sperm fertilizes the egg, forming a diploid zygote. The other sperm fuses with the two nuclei i nthe large central cell of the female gametophyte.
Layers of sporophyte tissure that envelope and protect the megasporangium.
Consists of the embryo, along with a food supply, packaged within a protective coat derived from the integuments.
Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, and Confierophyta.
Transitional species of seedless vascular plants that do not bear seeds
The zygote develops into a sporophyte embryo with a rudimentary root and one or two seed leaves.
The nucleus pf the central cell of the female gametophyte divides repeatedly and develops into endosperm, tissue rich in starch and other food reserves.
Species with one cotyledon
Species with two cotyledon
Fungi digest their food while it is still in the environment by secreting owerful hydrolytic enzymes, called exoenzymes, into their surroundings. Exoenzymes break down complex molecules to smaller organic compounds that the fungi can absorb into their bodies and use.
The morphology of multicellular fungi enhances their ability to absorb nutrients from their surroundings. The bodies of these fungi typically form a network of tiny filaments called hyphae. Composed of tubular cell walls surrounding the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of the cells.
Fungal cell walls
Fungal cell walls contain chitin, a strong but flexible nitrogen containing polysaccaride that is also found in the external skeletons of insects and other arthropods.
Fungal hyphae form an interwoven mass called a mycelium that surrounds and infiltrates the material on which the fungus feeds.
In most fungi, the hyphae are divided into cells by cross-walls.
Coenocytic fungi
Some fungi lack speta and consist of a continuous cytoplasmic mass containing hundreds or thousands of nuclei.
Other species of fungi have specialized hyphae that enable them to enetrate the tissue of their hosts.
Mutually beneficial relationships between such fungi and plant roots.
Ectomycorrhizal fungi
Form sheaths of hyphae over the surface of a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex.
Endomycorrhizal fungi
Extend their hyphae through the root cell wall and into tubes formed by invagination.
Generally, sexual reproduction in fungi begins when hyphae form two distinct mycelia release sexual signaling molecules.
The union of the cytoplasm of the two parent mycelia.
Parts of the mycelia contain coexisting, genetically different nuclei.
In some fungi, the haploid nuclei pair off two to a cell, one from each parent.
The haploid nuclei contributed by the two parents fuse, producing diploid cells.
Can reproduce asexually. Grow rapidly as mycelia and produce spores.
Can reproduce asexually by simple cell division or by pinching of small bud cells off a parent cell.
Many molds and yeasts have no known sexual stage.
Three groups of eukaryotes, the fungi, animals, and their protistan relatives, are members of the clade Opisthokonta.
Are ubiquitous in lakes and soil. Have unique flagellated spores called zoospores.
Includes molds, parasites, or commensal symbionts of animals.
Plasmogamy produces a sturdy structure in which karyogamy and then meiosis occur. Are resistant to freezing and drying and are metabotcially inactive. When conditions improve, a zygosporangium undergoes meiosis.
All glomeromycetes form a distinct type of endomycorrhiae called arbuscular mycorrhizae. The tips of the hyphae that push into plant root cells branch into tiny treelike structures known as arbuscules.
The defining feature of ascomycetes is the production of sexual spores in saclike asci, thus, they are commonly called sac fungi. Unlike zygomycetes, most ascomycetes bear their sexual stages in fruiting bodies or ascsocarps, which range in size from microscopic to macroscopic. Reproduce asexually by producing enormous numbers of asexual spores called conidia.
Derives from a cell in which a transient diploid stage occurs during the fungal life cycle. The club-like shape of the basidium also gives rise to the common name club fungus. A mushroom pops up as it absorbs water and as cytoplasm streams in from the dikaryotic mycelium.
A symbiotic association of millions of photosynthetic microorganisms held in a mass of fungal hyphae.
A succession of mitotic cell divisions without cell growth between division cycles.
During the development of most animals, clevage leads to the formation of a multicellular stage which in many animals takes the form of a hollow ball.
Layers of embryonic tissues that will develop into adult body parts are produced and the resulting developmental stage is called a gastrula.
A secually immature form of an anima that is morphologically distinct from the adult stage, usually eats different food, and may even have a different habitat than the adult, as in the case of the aquatic tadpole of a terrestrial frog.
A group of animal species tha share the same level of organizationl complexity.
Body plan
The set of morpohlogical and developmental traits that define a grade are generally integrated into a functional whole.
Germ layers
As development progresses, these concentric layers, form the variosu tissures and organs of the body.
The germ ayer covering the surgace of the embryo, gives rise to the outer coveing of the animal, and in some phyla, to the central nervous system.
The innermost germ layer, lines the developing digestive tube, or archeteron, and gives rise to the lining of the disgestive tract or cavity and organs derived from it, such as the liver and lungs of vertebrates.
Animals that have only these two germ layers.
Other animals have a third germ layer, between the ectoderm and endoderm.
Having three germ layers.
Body cavity
A fluid-filled space separating the digestive tract from the outer body wall.
Have one body cavity
Some triploblastic animals lack a coelom altogether.
Spiral clevage
The planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical axis of the embryo.
Determinate cleavage
This developmental pattern rigidly casts the developmental fate of each embryonic cell very early.
Radial clevage
Deutrostome development. Most are further characterized by indeterminate clevage, meaning that each cell produced by early clevage divisions retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo.
As the archenteron forms in protostome development, initially solid masses of mesoderm split and dorm the coelomic cavity.
Formation of the body cavity in deuterostome development. The mesoderm buds from the wall of the archenteron and its cavity becomes the coelom.