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95 Cards in this Set

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Rose-shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis
The cells of both land plants and charophyceans have rosette-synthesizing complexes. Arrays of proteins in the plasma membrane that synthesize the cellulose microfibrils of the cell walls.
Peroxisome enzymes
Both contain enzymes that help minimize the loss of organic products as a result of photorespiration.
Structure of flagellated sperm.
Both are resemblant of each other.
Formation of phragmoplast
The synthesis of new cross-walls (cell plates) during cell division involves the formation of a phragmoplast, an alignment of cytoskeletal elements and Golgi-derived vesicles across the midline of the dividing cell.
Sporopollenin
In charophyceans, a layer of durable polwmer prevents exposed zygotes from drying out.
Cuticle
Consists of polymers called polyesters and waxes.
Vascular tissue
Cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients thorughout the plant body.
Bryophytes
nonvascular plants
Seedless vascular plants
Lycophytes and pterophytes
Seed
Embryo packaged with a supply of nutrients inside a protective coat.
Angiosperms
A huge clade of all flowering plants. Seeds develop inside chambers called ovaries which originate within flowers and mature into fruits.
Bryophytes
Liverworts, hornworts, mosses. All nonvascular plants.
gametophore
A protonema produces one or more buds, each with an apical meristem that generates a gamete-producing structure
Rhizoid
Gametophytes are anchored by long tubular single cells (in liverworts and hornworts), or filaments of cells (in mosses)
Foot
Embedded in the archegonium and absorbs nutrients from the gametophyte.
Seta
Stalk, conducts these materials to the sproangium also called a capsule
Capsule
Uses materials from the seta to produce spores by meiosis.
Calyptra
An immature capsule has a protective cap of gametophyte tissue which is shed when the capsule is mature.
Peristome
The upper part of the capsule features a ring of toothlike structures. Specialized for gradual spore discharge, taking advantage of periodic wind gusts that can carry spores long distances.
Stomata
Support photosynthesis by allowing the exchange of Co2 and O2 between the outside air and the sporophyte interior
Peat
One wetland moss is especially widespread, forming extensive deposits of partially decayed organic material.
Xylem
Conducts most of the water and minerals. Includes tracheids, tube-shaped cells that carry water and minerals up from roots.
Phloem
Includes living sugar-conducting cells arranged into tubes that distribute sugars, amino-acids, and other organic materials.
Roots
Organs that anchor vascular plants and enable them to absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
Leaves
Organs that increase the surace area of vascular plants, thereby capturing more solar energy for photosynthesis.
Microphylls
Small, usually spine shaped leaves with a single vein
Megaphylls
Leaves with a highly branched vascular system.
Pollen grains
Contain the male gametophytes of seed plants.
Pollination
The transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules.
Conifers
Gymnosperm, cone bearing plants, which include such trees as pines, firs, and redwoods.
Flower
An angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction
Sepals
starting at the base of the flower, usually green and enclose the flower before it opens.
Petals
Brightly colored in most flowers and aid in attracting pollinators
Stamens
The microsporophylls, produce microspores that give rise to pollen grains containing male gametophytes.
Filament
Stalk
Anther
terminal sac
carpels
the megasporophylls, which make megaspores and their products, female gametophytes.
stigma
at the tip of the carpel, recieves pollen.
style
leads to the ovary
ovary
at the base of the carpel, which contains one or more ovules
Double fertilization
one sperm fertilizes the egg, forming a diploid zygote. The other sperm fuses with the two nuclei i nthe large central cell of the female gametophyte.
Integuments
Layers of sporophyte tissure that envelope and protect the megasporangium.
Seed
Consists of the embryo, along with a food supply, packaged within a protective coat derived from the integuments.
Gymnosperms
Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, and Confierophyta.
Progymnosperms
Transitional species of seedless vascular plants that do not bear seeds
Cotyledons
The zygote develops into a sporophyte embryo with a rudimentary root and one or two seed leaves.
Endosperm
The nucleus pf the central cell of the female gametophyte divides repeatedly and develops into endosperm, tissue rich in starch and other food reserves.
Monocots
Species with one cotyledon
Dicots
Species with two cotyledon
Exoenzymes
Fungi digest their food while it is still in the environment by secreting owerful hydrolytic enzymes, called exoenzymes, into their surroundings. Exoenzymes break down complex molecules to smaller organic compounds that the fungi can absorb into their bodies and use.
Hyphae
The morphology of multicellular fungi enhances their ability to absorb nutrients from their surroundings. The bodies of these fungi typically form a network of tiny filaments called hyphae. Composed of tubular cell walls surrounding the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of the cells.
Fungal cell walls
Fungal cell walls contain chitin, a strong but flexible nitrogen containing polysaccaride that is also found in the external skeletons of insects and other arthropods.
Mycelium
Fungal hyphae form an interwoven mass called a mycelium that surrounds and infiltrates the material on which the fungus feeds.
Septa
In most fungi, the hyphae are divided into cells by cross-walls.
Coenocytic fungi
Some fungi lack speta and consist of a continuous cytoplasmic mass containing hundreds or thousands of nuclei.
Haustoria
Other species of fungi have specialized hyphae that enable them to enetrate the tissue of their hosts.
Mycorrhizae
Mutually beneficial relationships between such fungi and plant roots.
Ectomycorrhizal fungi
Form sheaths of hyphae over the surface of a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex.
Endomycorrhizal fungi
Extend their hyphae through the root cell wall and into tubes formed by invagination.
Pheromones
Generally, sexual reproduction in fungi begins when hyphae form two distinct mycelia release sexual signaling molecules.
Plasmogamy
The union of the cytoplasm of the two parent mycelia.
Heterokaryon
Parts of the mycelia contain coexisting, genetically different nuclei.
Dikaryotic
In some fungi, the haploid nuclei pair off two to a cell, one from each parent.
Karyogamy
The haploid nuclei contributed by the two parents fuse, producing diploid cells.
Mold
Can reproduce asexually. Grow rapidly as mycelia and produce spores.
Yeasts
Can reproduce asexually by simple cell division or by pinching of small bud cells off a parent cell.
Deuteromycetes
Many molds and yeasts have no known sexual stage.
Opisthokonts
Three groups of eukaryotes, the fungi, animals, and their protistan relatives, are members of the clade Opisthokonta.
Chytrids
Are ubiquitous in lakes and soil. Have unique flagellated spores called zoospores.
Zygomycetes
Includes molds, parasites, or commensal symbionts of animals.
Zygosporangium
Plasmogamy produces a sturdy structure in which karyogamy and then meiosis occur. Are resistant to freezing and drying and are metabotcially inactive. When conditions improve, a zygosporangium undergoes meiosis.
Glomeromycetes
All glomeromycetes form a distinct type of endomycorrhiae called arbuscular mycorrhizae. The tips of the hyphae that push into plant root cells branch into tiny treelike structures known as arbuscules.
Ascomycetes
The defining feature of ascomycetes is the production of sexual spores in saclike asci, thus, they are commonly called sac fungi. Unlike zygomycetes, most ascomycetes bear their sexual stages in fruiting bodies or ascsocarps, which range in size from microscopic to macroscopic. Reproduce asexually by producing enormous numbers of asexual spores called conidia.
Basidiomycetes
Derives from a cell in which a transient diploid stage occurs during the fungal life cycle. The club-like shape of the basidium also gives rise to the common name club fungus. A mushroom pops up as it absorbs water and as cytoplasm streams in from the dikaryotic mycelium.
Lichens
A symbiotic association of millions of photosynthetic microorganisms held in a mass of fungal hyphae.
Cleavage
A succession of mitotic cell divisions without cell growth between division cycles.
Blastula
During the development of most animals, clevage leads to the formation of a multicellular stage which in many animals takes the form of a hollow ball.
Gastrulation
Layers of embryonic tissues that will develop into adult body parts are produced and the resulting developmental stage is called a gastrula.
Larva
A secually immature form of an anima that is morphologically distinct from the adult stage, usually eats different food, and may even have a different habitat than the adult, as in the case of the aquatic tadpole of a terrestrial frog.
Grade
A group of animal species tha share the same level of organizationl complexity.
Body plan
The set of morpohlogical and developmental traits that define a grade are generally integrated into a functional whole.
Germ layers
As development progresses, these concentric layers, form the variosu tissures and organs of the body.
Ectoderm
The germ ayer covering the surgace of the embryo, gives rise to the outer coveing of the animal, and in some phyla, to the central nervous system.
Endoderm
The innermost germ layer, lines the developing digestive tube, or archeteron, and gives rise to the lining of the disgestive tract or cavity and organs derived from it, such as the liver and lungs of vertebrates.
Diploblastic
Animals that have only these two germ layers.
Mesoderm
Other animals have a third germ layer, between the ectoderm and endoderm.
Triploblastic
Having three germ layers.
Body cavity
A fluid-filled space separating the digestive tract from the outer body wall.
Pseudocoelomates
Have one body cavity
Acoelomates
Some triploblastic animals lack a coelom altogether.
Spiral clevage
The planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical axis of the embryo.
Determinate cleavage
This developmental pattern rigidly casts the developmental fate of each embryonic cell very early.
Radial clevage
Deutrostome development. Most are further characterized by indeterminate clevage, meaning that each cell produced by early clevage divisions retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo.
Schizocoelous
As the archenteron forms in protostome development, initially solid masses of mesoderm split and dorm the coelomic cavity.
Enterocoelous
Formation of the body cavity in deuterostome development. The mesoderm buds from the wall of the archenteron and its cavity becomes the coelom.