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31 Cards in this Set

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endomembrane system: endoplasmic reticulum
attached to number membrane/envelope

smooth and rough ER

accounts for 1/2 of total membrane in many cells
rought ER
syn proteins w/ help nucleic acid, long, snakelike, store enzymes, ribo's on outisde
smooth ER
no ribonsomes,
1. syn lipids
2. detoxify toxins
fatter, wormlike
ribosomes
protein systhesis, very small, some bound/not to ER, 2 subunits (based on weight)

free - suspended in cytoplasm

bound - to rought ER
golgi apparatus
upper class Smooth ER
1. manufactures, stores, sorts, ships products ER (proteins)
2. found in plants and others
vesicles
parallel lining, how proteins move ER -> golgia app forming rough ER

fuses w/ cell membrane and becomes part of new cell
lysosome
organelle,

break down engulfed mol's

digests food (macromols), foreign materials and damaged organelles
- contains hydrolitic enzymes
- once digests food, becomes a residual body
: release of enzymes
: phagocytosis
: autophagy
autophagy
organelles,
eaten by lysosomes, break down into monomers, go bk to cytoplasm to reuse
mitochondria
shoe shape, formation ATP (cell resp), in plants not bacteria, inner and outer membrane

very small
outer membane mitochondria
smooth and protective
inner membrane mitochondria
lots folding (increases surface area), more control over what enters/exists
crista
finger like extgensions of mitochondria, krebs cycle site
matrix
enzymes - production ATP, inside inner membrane of mitochondria

holds ribosomes and DNA

remaining internal space in mitochon
chloroplasts
green -> photosy -> glucose (E) -> storage (starch)
chlorophhyll, inner and outer membrane
chlorophyll
inside cholorplasts, why its green, need lots Mg b/c Heme group (needs Fe)
thylakoid
"Quarter", have chlorohyll and other pigments that harvest light for photosyn
granum
stack in chlorophyll
grana
many stacks of chlorophyll
stroma lamellae
connectors in chlorophyll
stroma
in chlorophyll in chloroplasts

fluid where grana suspended, empty space, contains ribosomes and DNA, syn some proteins
peroxisome
high concentration catalase, breaks down protein and nucleic acid in hydrogen peroxie
catalase
converts hydrogen peroxide in to water and oxygen
central vacuole
membrane bound, full of h20
turgidity in plant -> lots pressure -> rigidty of plants
tonoplast
membrane surrounding central vacuole
cytoskeleton
gives cells shape: microtubules, microfilaments, intermed filmaents
cilium
short celluar appendage for microtubule movement

move fast

occurs in large #s on surface of cell

have 9-2 tubular structure,
dynein arms
arms that reach to adjacent microtubule and pull -> bend microtubule like cat climbing a tree
microtubules
hollow tubes, 13 columns of tubulin molecules

25 nm w/ 15 nm lumen (hole)

tubulin, consisting of a-tubulin and b-tubulin

1. maint cell shape
2. cell motility (individs and groups)
3. c'some movements in cell division
4. organelle movements
microfilaments
two intertwined strands of actin

7 nm

actin - filaments slide towards center, causes a contraction or shortening of muscle

1. maint of cell shape (tension-bearing elements)
2. changes in cell shape
3. muscle contraction
4. cytoplasmic streaming - cytoplasm circles around cell)
5. cell motility (NOT FLAGELLA)
6. cell division (cleavage furrow formation)
intermediate filaments
fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables

8-12 nm

one of several diff proteins of the kertain fam

1. maint cell shape (tension bearing eles)
2. anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles
3. formation nuclear lamina
phagocytosis
pocket forms in plas membrane, encloses material from outside cell, breaks free of plas mem and moves into cytoplas, fuses w/ lysosome, how gets into cell

a way to get out of cell

cell eating