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15 Cards in this Set

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the first energy-releasing metabolic pathways were _______________ because ______________.
anaerobic, Earth's oxygen-rich atmosphere had not evolved
an oxygen-dependent pathway used by cells of nearly all species
aerobic respiration
In all cells, all of the main energy-releasing pathways start with_____________________________________.
the same reactions in the cytoplasm
reactions in which enzymes cleave and rearrange a glucose molecule into two molecules of pyruvate
glycolysis
an organic compound that has a three-carbon backbone
pyruvate
only the __________ pathway continues and ends in ____________________.
aerobic, mitochondria
anaerobic respiration has a net yield of _____
2 ATP
aerobic respiration typically yields ________
36 ATP or more
the equation for aerobic respiration
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
a cyclic pathway in which enzymes break down pyruvate to carbon dioxide and water, which releases many electrons and hydrogen atoms
Krebs cycle
two coenzymes in aerobic respiration that accept electrons and hydrogen derived from intermediates of glucose breakdown
NAD+ and FAD
NAD+ and FAD are reduced to ___________ when carrying electrons and hydrogen.
NADH and FADH2
glucose
6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, 6 oxygen atoms
glycolysis takes and energy investment of ______.
2 ATP
the direct transfer of a phosphate group from the substrate of a reaction to some other molecule
substrate-level phosphorylation