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99 Cards in this Set

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what is the functional unit of nerve syste?
neuron
affernt
sensory neuron
efferent
motor neuron
internuron
between affernt and efferent
dendrite
receive stimuli and convert them into electrifcal impulse.

some dendrites are specialized to respond to specific stimuli such as light or heat
cell body
contains nuclei and metabolic mashinery
Axon
transmit action potentials and nerve impulse

wrap in mylin sheath compose of Schwann cell in (PNS)
and oligodendrocyte (CNS)

glial cell produce mylin sheet (schwann cell and oligodendrocyte)
inc intensity of stimulus =
inc action potential's frequency
mylin sheath produced by?
produced by glial cell

glial cell broke down into two
-oligodendrocyte produce mylin in CNS
-Schwann produce mylin in PNS
synaptic terminals
secretes neurotransmitter into synaptic terminal in roder to stimulate postsynaptic nerve
Presynptic cells
transmit action potential to postsynptic cells

axon terminal
postsynptic cells
receive neurotransmitter from the synptic

dendrite
acetylcholinesterase
enzyme that inactivate actycoline which is a neurotransmitter.
action potential
impulse that travel the length of the axon in only one direction and cause neurotransmitter to be released at the axon terminal

all or none response
-whenever the threshold membrane potential is reached an action potential with a consistant size and duration is produced
Resting potential
due to Na/K pump

membrane potential is -70mV which means inside of the neuron is more negative than outside

the difference is due to ionic permeability of the neuronal cell membrane and is maintained by active transport Na/K pump
Na/K pump
transport 3 NA for every 2 K
action potential

mechanism
the threshold membrane potential is -50 mV

sodium channel opens
membrane becomes depolarized
-happens when stimuli is strong enough to excite cell beyond threshold

Na gate opens rapidly and Na goes inside
depolorization occur
K gate opens slowly lag behind the action of Na channel
first steps that cause action potential to travel one direction
1. mem at rest all gates are closed.(inside K>>Na, outside Na>>K)

the testing potential is created bc neuron is selectively permeable to K. So K diffuse down its concentration gradient leaving a net negative change inside. neuron is impermeable to Na
Second steps that cause action potential to travel one direction
Membrane depolarize b/c Na gate is poen and K gate closed (3 Na is pumped inside for 2 K for each ATP
Third steps that cause action potential to travel one direction
Na gate close K gate open and membrane repolarize
fourth steps that cause action potential to travel one direction
K gate are closing slowly hypopolarization occur
Nerve system
periperal

central
=brain and spinal cord
Periperal
sensory
-afferent

Motor
-efferent
Motor
somatic
-voluntary, skeletal muscle

autonomic
-involuntary, cardiac and smooth muscle
-organs of the digestive, cardiovescular, urinary, and endocrine
Autonomic
Sympathetic
-fight or flight
-inc heart rate, BP
-dec digestion
-norepineprine (primary neuro transmitter)

parasympathetic
-rest and digest
-acetylcholine (primary neurotransmitter)
norepineprine
primary neurotransmitter of sympathetic ns
acetylcholine
primary neurotransmitter of parasympathetic ns
Annelids
ex earthwarm
primitive CNS
Arthopods
have CNS, brain similar to annelids but have more specialized sense organ are present
Cnidaria (Coelenterates)
have nerve net
Protozoa (coelenterates)
unicellular organism thus no organized nerve system.
menings
3개의막 brain 보호
cerebrospinal fluid
menings사이의공간과 brain내부의 공간을 채우는 fluid
absorb pressure or shock
Brain
compose of grey matter(outside) and white matter
forebrain
Midbrain
hindbrain
Forebrain
prosencephalon
의식적인 생각, 추리, 기억, 언어, 감각에 대한 지각과해석

cerebrum(telecephalon)
thalamus (diencephalon)
reticular sys
hypothalamus(diencephalon)
limbic sys
prosencephalon
forebrain
cerebrum
telecephalon
heft and right cerebral hemisphere

frontal lobe
parietal lobe
occipital lobe
temporal lobe
telecephalon
cerebrum
cerebral cortex
cerebrum바깥부분 구성
thin, 많은 신경세포들의 세포체와 수상돌기로 이루어저있다
감각과 운동에 관련
frontal lobe
part of cerebrum

의식적인 움직임 조절관여
speech
감각정보분류
parietal lobe
피부의 감각수용기로부터 감각을 받는 부분 (sensory cortex)
몸에 자세나 위치 감지하는 부위
speech taste reading
Occipital lobe
part of cerebrum

vision association area
temporal lobe
part of cerebrum

auditory association area
smell
hearing
corpus callosum
connect left and right verebral hemisphere and info transfer
left side of cerebrum
언어중추, 논리와 수리능력
몸의 오른쪽에서 정보를 받는다
right side of cerebrum
상상력, 공간지각, 예술적 재능, 음악적제능
몸의 왠쪽에서 정보를 받는다
broca's area
언어력
in left hemisphere
wernicke's area
hearing
단어뜻 해석
in left hemisphere
angulon gyrus
reading
단어로 번역
in left hemisphere
Thalamus
part of forebrain
relay and integration center for the spinal cord and cerebral cortex
hypothalamus
part of forebrain
control visceral function
-sex drive, water balance, blood pressure and temp reg

nerve sys, endocrine sys and pituary gland 조절
limbic system
thalamus, hypothalmus
amygdala-자극돼면 분노, 언제돼면 우울
hippocampus 기억의 저장과 상기
Mesencephalon
midbrain
midbrane
mesencephalon
connect forebrain and hindbrain.
눈과귀로부터 sensory info받음,forebrain으로 가기전에 midbrain에서 먼저 분석
rhombencephalon
hindbrain
hindbrain
rhombencephalon
connected to spinal cord
medulla oblongata
cerebellum
PONS
medulla oblongata
part if hindbrain
heart rate, respiration rate, Blood pressure 조절

spinal cord와 forebrain사이의 전달은 모두 medulla oblongata를 통한다
cerebellum
movement and cordination
part of hindbrain
PONS
part of hindbrain
help medulla oblongata
Spinal cord
connects brain to PNS
grey matter inside
white matter outside
spinal reflex
뇌에 연락하지 않고 반사
external ear
pinna and
auditory cannal
ear drum (tympanic membrane)
middle ear
ear drum 의 진동을 cochlea에 전달


tympanic membrane and
three bones of ossicles (amplify stimulus)
-malleus (hammer)
-incus (anvil)
-staps(stapes)

eustachion tuve
malleus
bones of ossicles
hammer
incus
bones of ossicles
anvil
staps
stirrups
bones of ossiciles
eustachian tube
귀외 목구멍 뒤부븐공기를 이동시키는 공기압력이 일정하도록 유지
Inner ear
cochlea and semicircular canals (organ of corti)
cochela
organ of corti 가 있다

vibration of ossicles exerts pressure on the fluid in cochlear, stimulating hair cell in the basal membrane to transduce pressure to action potential
소리의 반응순서
소리의 진동 ->pinnea->auditory cannal->ear drum->hammer->anvil->stirrup->cochlea->organ of corti->basal membrane ->neuron 자극->hindbrain->cerebral cortex
sclera
cover eyeball
pupil의 모양 유지
눈을 움직이는 근육부축
cornea
bend and focus light
choroid
sclera안쪽에 있다
location of capillaries
supply retina with blood
iris 랑 연결
Iris
Pupil 의 크기조졸
response to the intensity of light
lense
focus image onto retina
Retina
inner most layer of the eye
contain photoreceptor which transduce light into action potential
fovea
center of visual field
important for high acuity vision

area in retina where many cons (color vision) is located
시각 반응순서
light->scarla->choroid->cornea->pupil->lense-> posterior chamber->retina->신경세포->hindbrain
photoreceptor
cones and rod
cones
photoreceptor that response to high intensity illuminent and are sensitive to color

3 different pigment absorb
-red
-green
-blue
rod
photoreceptor
detect low tensity illumination
important to night vision

rhodopsin, absorb single warelength
myopia
nearsightness

image is focused infront of retina
pyperopia
farsightness

image is socused behind theretina
astigmatism
caused by an irregular haped cornea
cataracts
when lens become opaque(black)

blindness
glaucoma
increae of pressure in the eye because of blocking of the outflow of the aqueous humor
what protein complex is responsible for the resting potential (-70mV) of a neuron?
the Na+, K- pump
t/f

in the resting neuron, Na+ concentration is higher inside the cell than outside cell
false

Na+ concentration is higher outside the resting potential
do Na+ rush into or out of the cell during depolarization?
Na+ rush into a cell during depolarization
do K+ ions rush into or out of cell during repolarization?
K+ rush out of the cell
t/f a neuron can conduct during the refractory period?
false

the neuron is unable to respond to stimulusdruing the refractory period
what is hyperpolarization?
hyperpolarization refers to a state where the potential across the membrane is more negative than resting potential
what is saltatory conduction?
saltatory conduction is the jumping of an action betweenthe unmyelinated node of ranvier
what happens when an action potential reaches a synapse?
when action potential reaches a synapse, the electrical signal cause the release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic membrane into the synapse
what is the largest part of the human brain?
the cerebral cortex
what is the fuctionof the cerebral cortex?
the cerebral cortex processes and integrates sensory input and motor response and controls memory
which part of the brain controls autonomic activities?
medula oblongata
what are the four regions of the spinal cord?
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral
what are the component of the hindbrain?
cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata