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95 Cards in this Set

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plasma
liquid portion of blood
Red blood cell
erythrocyte

transfer of O2
white blood cell
lymphocyte

immunity
platelets
clotting
where are blood cells form
bone marrow (red and white and plasma)
weight of blood cells
plasma>lecocyte,platelets>erythrocyte
Arteries
심장으로부터 온몸의각기관으로 oxygenate blood 운반 (except pulmonary artery, which carry deoxygenated blood from heart to lung)

no valve

under high pressure

Aorta is the largest artery

made of epithelium, smooth muscle and connective tissue
Vein
move deoxygenate blood to the heart(except pulmonary vein which carry oxygenate blood from lung to heart)

under low pressure

has valve

made of epitheleum, smooth muscle, connective tissue

vena cava are largest vein
capillaries
smallest blood vessle

site for gas exchange
open vs closed system
open cs has no capillaries

closed cs has capillaries
open보다 쉽고 빠르게 O2, CO2가 운반됀다
systemic circuit (온몸을 돈다)
left ventrical(high O2, low CO2)-aorta(asending/desending)-capillaries of upper and lower body -superior/inferior vena cava(low O2 and high CO2)-right atrium(low O2, high CO2)
pulmonary circuit (lung을돈다)
right ventricle(low O2 and high CO2)-pulmonary artery (low O2 and high CO2)-capillaries of lung (O2/CO2 exchange)-pulmonary vein(high O2 low CO2)-left atrium(high O2 low CO2)
atrium
right and left
-left receive from lung
-right receive from body

above ventricle

vena cava to right
pulmonary vein to left

foramen ovale connects btw right and left

receive blood

has valve btw atrium and ventricle
-atroventricular valve
--tricuspid valve(right)
--biscuspid valve (left)
ventricle
push out
has aorta to left
pulmonary arteries to right
-to lung
aorta to left
-to body

semilunar velve in aorta and pulmonary arteries
diastole
when blood travel from atrium to ventricle

heart relaxes
systole
when blood travel from ventricle to aorta and P.Arteries

ventricle contract
ductus aerteriosus
feature of fetal circulation.

shunt blood away from developing lung

connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta
clotting mechanism
platelets from bone marrow in contact with exposed collagen
secretes THROMBOPLASTIN

THROMBOPLASTIN converts PROTHROMBIN(from liver) to THROMBIN

THROMBIN converts FIBROGEN to FIBRIN whichtrap blood cell leading to clot formation
SA node (sinoatrial)
P -atrium contracts
P-Q is pace maker
R-S is ventricle contract
T is time that the muscle are recovered from the contraction.
protozoans/coelenterates
movement of gases and nutrient is accomplished by simple diffusion whtin the cell
Annelids
earthwarm, cloased CS
Arthropods
open CS in which blood is direct contact with body tissue. Blood is circulated primarity by body movement

blood flow through dorsal vessel and into spaces called sinuses where exchange occur.
Antigen
agglutinogens

A type has A antigen on the surface of RBC and make anti B (antibody)

O type do not have any antigen thus make anti A and Anti B

type AB ahhs both antgen and make no antibody
antiboddy
agglutinins

protein produced by the body that binds to the antigens (attack antigen)

either attack antigen or enhance phagocytosis of antigen
antibody enhance phagocytosis by??
neutralization
agygulutination
precipitation
cell lysis
lymphatic system
link btw circulatory sys and immune sys

absorb excess fluid (lymph vessle) and cycle back to circulatory sys

produce lymphocytes and transport white blood cell
Primary defense
skin, sweat, saliva, tear
secondary defense
non-specific and specific
non-specific chemical defense
inflamatory response
complementary protein
interferon
inflamatory response
from damaged master cell/basophil(WBC) histamin is secreted
-histamine dilates capillaries (make it wbc to infiltrate easily)

leucocyte(WBC)secrete PROSTAGLADIN(상처부위로 더많은 혈액이 흐르도록한다 그래서 상처부위가더 붉게 부르고 열이난다) to damaged cell

complementary protein and phagocytosis gather at dammaged cell
-neutrophil (WBC) coems first then macrophage

macrophage secretes cytokine
which gather phgocytosis
-cytokine also work as pyrogen(열을낸다,microgoranism성장억제)
complement protein
histamin 방출자극

phagocyte 을 유인함

antibody 가 antigen 을 인식하게 도와준다
-antibody에 complementary protein이 붇는다
interferon
공격받은세포가 interferon 을 만들고 죽는다

건강한 세포를 자극, viral production을 방해하는 다른 protein을 생산.
-바이러스 외피단백질차단
nonspecific cellular defense
phagocyte
-neutrophile
-macrophhage
-monocyte 가 상처부위로 오면 커다란 macrophage로 성장

natural killer cell
autoimmune diease
자기와 비자기를 구분못하면 걸린다
specific defense
immunity
-antigen마다 특이적인 Tcell or antibody 가 작용한다

-antigen은 수많은 종류가있고, 다양한 epitope를 가지고있다.

humoral immunity
-release antibody
-B lymphocyte
cell mediated immunity
-T cell attack
-T lymphocyte
Humoral immunity
B Lymphocyte 가관여

antibody가 외부침입자의 epitope와 반응하는 작용
cell mediated immunity
bacteria 나 virus에 감연됀 사람의세포 또는 돌연변이됀 세포(cancer)를 공격

T lymphocyte
primary lymphoid organ
bone marrow and thymus
secondary lymphoid organ
lymph node and spleen
B lymphocyte
continue maturation in bone marrow
when mature migrate to lymphoid tissue (lymph node, spleen, blood and lymph)

특정한 하나의 antigen을 인힉하여 결합할수있는 특이한 antibody를 같고있다
T lymphocyte
move to thymus from bone marrow and complete their maturation in thymus
when mature migrate to lymphoid tissue (lymph node, spleen, blood and lymph)
Primary immune system
lymphocyte가 첨으로 antigen에 노출돼어 effector cell들의 clone을 형성
take time does not start right away
secondary immune system
vaccination

똑같은 antigen이 2번재 노출돼었경우에 빠르게 더강하게 반응한다
memory cell vs effector cell
memory cell
-오래산다
-lymph node에 남아서 2차로 노출돼면 memory cell과 세로운 effector cell을 만든다

effector cell
-오직몇칠동안만 살아남는다
IgG
antibody from b cell

single
in blood
IgA
antibody from b cell

double
침, 눈물, 모유
IgD
antibody from b cell

Bcell 표면
IgM
antibody from b cell

blood plasma
IgE
antibody from b cell

master celland basophil 부터 histamin 분비를 촉진시킴
cell mediated response
involve Tcell
Tcell
cytotoxin Tcell
suppressor Tcell
helper Tcell
helper Tcell
activates Bcell
secret leymphokine which bring other t cells
cytotoxin Tcell
다른세포를 죽인다 (by lysis)
suppressor Tcell
Tcell and Bcell 억제when 간염됀게 없어지면
white blood cell
lymphocyte -make antibody
-B cell
-T cell

basophile
-inflammatory response
esoinphile
-phacocyte
neutrophils
-phycocyte
monocyte
-macrophage로 정장
ductus venosus
connects fetal portal circulation to the placenta
what is portal system?
unusual circulatory arrangements in the body in which there are two interconnected capillary beds.

blood travels from artery to capillary bed to vein to second capillary bed

ex. hepatic portal system
and hypothalamic portal system
non-portal circulation
blood travels from arteries to a capillary bed and back to a vein
heptic poral system
blood leaving capillary bed of the small inestine, which has packed up digested food, passes thru the heptic portal vein to to a capillary beds in the liver before returning to a venous system
hypotalaic portal system
the two capillary beds are contained in the hypotalamusand the anterior pituary. this portal system brngs releasing factors from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituary
aglutinins
they are the antibodies that recognize the different blood type.

antibodis cause agglutinationor clumping of blood
Agglutinogens
are antigens that determin blood type

found on surface of red blood cell
bone marrow
organ invovled in immune system

produce immune cell such as lymphocyte, monocyte, leukocyte, B cell, and T cell
thymus
organ invovled in immune system

secrete thymosin, hormone that stimulate pre T cells to mature
spleen
organ invovled in immune system

storage aea for blood and also filter blood and lymph
eye "tear"
nonspecific immune sys

tear contais an antibacterial enzyme called lysozyme that can digest peptidoglycan call wall in bacteria
skin
organ invovled in immune system

hard to penetrate
respiratory track
organ invovled in immune system

mucus n nose and muth trap
microorganism
cillia lining in the respiratory track move the trapped organism out of the system
digestive track
organ invovled in immune system

acidity of the stomach kill many organism that enter thru mouth man
complement system
organ invovled in immune system

protein secreted in blood defend againt infection generalized manner
complement protein
non specific

in complement sys.
complement protein binds to the surface of many pathgens, attracting white blood cell to destroy infection
neutrophils and macrophage
non specific

nuetrophile show up first duirng complement sys

white b cell
ingest infectious agent via phagoctosis
interferon
non specfic

released from the cell that is attacked by the pathogen

stimulate production of proteins that interfere with viral replication
inflammatory response
non specific

injured cell release histamine which cause blood vessel to dilate resulting in inc blood flow to the site of damage

accompany by fever
specific immune response
b cell and T cell (both are white blood cell)

recognize and eliminate foregin particl
production of antibodies
B cell
humoral response
cellular response
t cell
lymphokine
ex. interlekin

signaling molecule secreted by helper T cell which coordinate the immune response of other cells against specific antigens
t cell mature in
thymus
b cell mature in
bone marrow
for antigen to stimulate T cell receptor it must be presented to the t cell as part of a complex protein called??
MHC (major histocompatibilt complex)
MHC class 1
proteins are present on the surface of all cells
MHC class 2
poteins are only present on the surface of immune cells including macrophage, B cells and T cells
activation of B and T cell
1. macrophage phagocytize pathogen.
2. these are displaye on the surface of the macrophage via MHC II protein
3. Helper T cell recognize MHC antigen complex
4. helper t cell binds with MHC complex and secrete interleukins
5. interleukins activae cytotoxin t cells to kill infected cells and stimulte B cells to secreite antibody
plasma cell
speciallzied b cells that produceand secrete antibodies
epitope
is specirfic part of the antigen recognized by the imune system
antigen binding site of antibody
variable reigon of heavy chian
variable region contans large number of ()
a.a sequence
bonds in antibody
disulfide bond btw heavy-heavy constant region

and heavy and light chain
primary immune response
upon firs exposure to an antigen
secondary immun response
if body later expose to the same antigen, immune system response more quickly and effectively
immunological memory
regonize antigen tat has been previously exposed

based o memory cells
-produce during 1st immune response
-survive log periods and quickly proliferate if exposed to the antigen that caused gtheir creation
active immunity
-development of antibody due to exposure to an antigen

-vaccination

-example of artifically acquired immunity
passive immunity
-transfer of pe formed antibody
-during pregnancy, some antibody pass from mother to fetus via placenta

-naturlly acquired

-last only as log as the antibodies remainin the blood stream
foramen ovale
connects the right atrium to the left atrium in the fetal hear

purpose is to shunt blood away from the developing lungs