Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/59

Click to flip

59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
haploid vs diploid
hapolid= n = 23 chromosome
-sperm and egg cell

diploid =2n =46
cell cycle
G1
-synthesis of many protein and organelle
-cell undergo growth in size
-inc in mito and ribosome


S
-DNA synthesis or replication
sister chromatid forms histone and 단백질 복제

G2
-prep for mitosis
more cellular growth

(G1-G2 = interphase cell spends 90% of time)

M
-Mitosis
Check Points in cell cycle
G1 CP
-is cell big enough
-is enviornment favorable
-determine whether cell cycle start or not

G2 CP
-is all DNA replicated
-is environmental favorable
-is cell big enough

Miotic CP (after metaphase)
-are all chromosome alligned on spindle
interphase
G1, S, G2

each chromosome is replicated
-chromosome consist of sister chrometid
-during interphase individual chromosome are not visble
-DNA is uncoiled and called chromatid
Mitosis
example of asexual reproduction

no genetic mixing

PMAT

DNA replicates and mitosis occur
Mitosis

prophase
nucleoli begain to disappear, nuclear membrane disappear and spindle apparatus and chromosome forms
Mitosis

Metaphase
chromosome (sister chromatid) move to metaphase plate
mitosis

Anaphase
sister chromatid seperate
after seperation, they are called daughter chromosome
mitosis

telophase
nuclear mem. reforming
nucleoli reappearing
spindle fiber disappear (reused in making of exokeletal)
cytokinesis take place
Cytokinesis
in animal
--contracting ring of microfilament (actin / myosin)

-cleavage furrow

In animal
-vesile from golgi form in the center
-cescile connect together to form cell plate
Meiosis
only in reproductive cell

produce daughter cell call gametes

염색체수를 46개에서 23개로 됀 sperm or egg 를 만든다

Meiosis I
-interphase I
-PMAT I

Meiosis II
-analogous to mitosis at the end there will be 4 haploid cell which are different frmo parent sells with single stranded chromosome

(in mitosis produce identical cell)
Meiosis

Prophase I
centremere replicate

1. leptotine
-chromatid 응집, become chromosome

2. zygotene
-2 chromosome becomes tetrad (XX) homologus chromosome

3. Pechytene
-crossing over happens

4. diplotene
-chiasma is seen

5. diakinesis
-homologus chromosome Cross over 분리단계
Meiosis

Metaphase I
spindle fiber 가 centeremre 에 부착(--XX--)

in mitosis (--X--)
Meiosis

Anapahse I
seperation of homologus chromosome
(disjuction)

law of segregation + independent assortment
Mitosis vs Meiosis
Mitosis
- 2N -> 2N
-occurs in all dividing cell
-homologus chromosomes don't pair up
-daughter cell identical to parent cell

Meiosis
-2N -> 1N
-occurs only in sex ells only
-homologus chromosomes pair up at the metaphse plate forming tetrads
-crossing over occur
-daughter cell different from parent cell
Type of asexual reproduction
w/o fertilization
budding
Binary fission
parthenogensis
Budding
occurs in yeast and hydra
(unequal cytokineisis)

budding is different from binary fission bc it involves unevencytokinesis
binary fission occurs to which organism?
occur in bacteria, amoeba, paramecia, algae
parthenogensis
development of egg w/o fertilization
ex. bee
Regeneration
regrwoth of a lost or injured body part

replacement of cell occur by mitosis
Oogenesis

description
egg undergoes a single mitotic division. this produce 2 oocyte once a month during ovualaton,

follicle ruptures releasing the oocyte.

egg move thru oviduct or faalopian tube.
Oogenesis

diagram
Oogonium (2N)
--->
Primary Oocyte (2N)

---> Meiosis I

Secondary Oocyte (egg) and first polar body

---> Meiosis II (only 2 Oocyte)

Ovum (1N) and second polar body
Polar body
small cell that contains little more than the nucleus

rapidly degenerate
female gonads (overies) produce ??
Oocyte
Spermatogenesis
occurs in seminiferous tubles

spermatogonium (2N)
--->
Primary spermatocyte (2N)

--->Meiosis I

secondary spermatocytes (n)

---> Meiosis II

Sperm cell (N)
testes produce what??
gametes, testastrone
Male reproductive Track
seminiferous tubles
epididymis
vAS DEFERENCES
ejeculatory tubules


Urethra
tip of penius
SEVEN UP
Testes
seminiferous tubules, epidimis and interstitial cells
epididymis
sperm storage and maturation
(in testes)
vas deferens
transport of sperm to the urethra
three sets of glands contribute to semen
seminila vesicles
prostate gland (secret alkaline fluid)

bulbourethral glands
Ovaries
production of germ cells
falopian tubes (oviduct)
have cilia, which propel ovum to the uterus

fertilization happens here
uterus
endometrium and myometrium
implantation and development of blastula
vagina
reproductive track
CROSS OVER
Chromosomal crossover refers to the process by which two chromosomes, paired up during prophase 1 of meiosis, exchange some portion of their DNA. Crossing over is specifically initiated in zygotene, before the synaptonemal complex develops, and is not completed until near the end of prophase 1.(CR appears occurs in pechytee) Crossover usually occurs when matching regions on matching chromosomes break and then reconnect to the other chromosome. The result of this process is an exchange of genes, called genetic recombination.
seminal vesicles
gland from bladder
정자에 영향분 공급.
prostate gland
secretes alkaline fluid
소변으로 산성화돈걸 중화
bulbourethral glands
성교시 작으니 양의액체를 요도로 분비, 액체는 정자가 요도를 움직이는 동안 윤할유역활을 한다
binary fission
occur in bacteria

equal division
budding
occurs in yest

replication followed by unequal cytokinesis

smaller in size but genetically identical to the parent cell.
parthenogensis
development of gee without fertilization

ex bee and ants
male develop from unfertilized eggs while the worker bees and queen bees develop from fertilized egg
lepotine
1st stage of prophase I in meiosis

chromatid 응집 become chromosome
zygotene
2nd stage of prophase I in meiosis

become tetrad
pechytene
3rd stage of prophase I in meiosis

crossing over happens here
diplotene
4th stage of prophase I in meiosis

chiasma is seen
diakinesis
5th and final stage of prophase I in meiosis

homogus chromosome cross over분리 단게
upon, ovulation, the oocyte is released into the?
abdominal cavity

the ruptured ovarian follicle releases an oocyte into the abdominal cavity, close to the entrance of the fallopian tube. with the aid of beating cilia, the oocyte is drawn into the fallopian tube.

it it is fertilzed (in fallopian tube), it(blastula) will implant in the uterine wall, it not it will be expelled along with the uterine lining during menstruation
three way in which sexual reporduction promotes genetic variability
random fertilization
crossing over btw tetrad
independent assortment of tetrad
independent assortment of chromosome inc genetic varibility how?
duing metapahse I tetrad randomely align at the metaphase plate, the randome positioning of the tetrad determins which chromosomes are pulled toward each pole of the cell during anaphase
the chromosome number of offspring produced via parthnogenesis is?
haploid
folicular phase
folicle mature

FSH promotes developmet of the folliclewhich grows and secrete estrogen
ovulation
follicle burst and release ovum
caused by surge in LH and part by peak in estrogen level
luteal phase
ruptured follicle becomes corpus luteum and secretes estrogen and progesterone to build up uterine lining in preparation for implantation

LH and FSH inhibited
menstration
if fertilization doesn't occur, corpus luteum atrohies(weaken), cuase drop in progesterone and estrogen level and cause the edometrium to slough off

LH and FSH begain to raise
FSH promotes?
development of follicles in (follicular phase)
LH and estrogen level peak results in?
follicle burst and release ovum (ovulation)
corpus leutum secretes
estrogen and progesteron to build uterine lining for implemantation (leuteal phase)
drop in progesteron and estroen
cause endometrium to slough off if fertilization does not take place (menstration)