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112 Cards in this Set

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Ratio of Carbohydrate
CHO
1:2:1 ration
most 1,4 linkage
maltose
Glucose+Glucose
lactose
Glucose+galactose
gaLACtose
Sucrose
Glucose+Fructose
FRUctose
what is Protein?
a.a join by the peptide bond (amide linkage) HO-H 이 빠진다.(dehydraton) thus C-N bond

must adapt tertiary structure (determine by primary structure) to be functional.
what is peptide bond
Hormone
example?
chemical messenger

insulin and ACTH

lipid hormone-diffuse easily through membrane

peptide hormome (ligand)-can diffuse through membrane thus must use cAMP.
lipid derivatives
example
phospholipid, waxes, steriod (cholesterol, sex hormones, corticosteroids), carotenoid, porphyrins
peptide bond
linkage of amino acid

amide 결합
dehydration
Protein "Primary structre"
한가닥의 polypeptide 사슬
a.a 서열 순서를 알수있다
tertiary structure를 결정

"for a single polypeptide protein to be functional , it must adapt a tertiay function"

a.a모여서 protein 을 만든다
secondary protein
alpha helix, beta plate

peptide 사슬내의 amide 결합위 기본구조가 유지, peptide 사슬간 또는 분자 내에서 이루어지는 H-bond 결과로 형성돼는 3차원 구조
tertiary protein
determined by primary (a.a sequence)structure

vander walls, H bond, covalent bond, ionic bond 된 3차구조

"for a single polypeptide protein to be functional , it must adapt a tertiay function"
4th protein
2개이상의 subunit 에 해당돼는 polypeptide 가 수소결합으로 연결

not always happen

ex. collagen, hemoglobin
albumins and globulin
carrier protein or enzyme
scleroproteins
structural protein

collagen
conjugated proteins
contain a simple protein portion and at least one nonprotein fraction
lipoprotein
protein bound to lipid
mucoprotein
protein bound to carbohydrate
chromoproteins
protein bound to pigmented molecules
metalloproteins
protein complexed around a metal ion
nucleoproteins
protein containing histone or protamine bound to nucleic acid
protein fuction
hormone, enzyme, structural protein, transport protein, antibodies
enzyme
catalyst affect the rate of chemical rxn by lowering activation energy

regulate metabolism by speeding up or down

does not used up

very selective; they may catalyze only one rxn

enzyme rxn is reversible
lock and key
enzymes' active site is exectly complementary to the spatial structure of its substrate.
temperature and enzyme
temperature inc= enzyme inc
until opt temp is reached (40)
bonds in nucleic acid
glycosidic bond
phosphodiester bond
glycosidic bond
base and sugar in nuleic acid
phosphodiester bond
phosphorus and sugar
ph and enzyme
maximum ph except for pepsin

pepsin only works at Ph =2

usually PH 7 is optimal
example of unicellular
cell division
reproduction
example of multicellular
cell division
growth, development, replacement of wornout cell
what is karyokinesis
nuclear division
what is cytokineisis
cell division
which one comes first?
karyokinesis or cytokinesis
karyokinesis is followed by cytokinesis
What happens when size of cell inc?
the ration of cells surface area to its volume dec.
describe fluid mosaic model
states that the plasma membrane consist of phospholipid bilayer

lipid bilayer are in constant motion w/ plane of membrane

fluidity allows ion and small molecule to diffuse directly across cell

larger moledule is moved by carrier molecule
Prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes

cell respiration
Pro: directly at cell membrane

euk: occurs across the mitochondiral membrane
Pro vs euk

nucleus
pro: no nuclear memb

euk: have nuclear memb
Pro vs euk

genetic material
pro: single circular DNA in nucleoid regin, no histone and no intron (non coding area)

euk: linear DNA, highly coiled, have intron
Pro vs euk

plasmid
pro: plasmid consist of few genes

euk: no plasmid
Pro vs euk

cell wall
pro: peptidoglycan

euk; in plant cellulose
pro vs euk

RNA processing
pro: simple RNA splicing w/o splicing

euk: post transcriptional RNA modification (splicing, 5 cap, poly A tail)
pro vs euk

location of transcription
and translation
pro: in cytosol

euk: transcript= nucleus
translation= cytosol
pro vs euk

cell division
pro: binary fission (asexual)

euk: mitosis and meiosis (sexual)
pro vs euk

membranous model
pro: none

euk: nucleus, mito, ER, golgi, lyso and peroxisomes
Pro vs euk

ribosomes
pro: ribosome 50+30 (small)

euk: ribosome 60+40 (large)
pro vs euk

cytoskeleton
pro: no

euk; yes
pro vs euk

centrioles
pro: no

euk: yes
pro vs euk

flagella
pro: differ in structure from eukaryotes

euk:yes
pro vs euk

sites of ATP synthesis
pro: at plasma membrane

euk: mitochondria
pro vs euk

sites of respiration
pro: cell membrane

euk: require respiratory sys
plasma membrane
Permeability
fluid mosaic model
reg. fludity of memb by adjusting theamt of unsaturated hydrocarbon

animal cell regulate fludity by adjusting amount of cholestrol

small nonpolar :readily permeable

small charged: protein channel

large charged: carrier protein
unsaturated vs saturated hydrocarbon
unsaturated hydrocarbonare bent thus do not pack closely as saturated hydrocarbon tail
Mitochondria
membrane bound
double layer(inner/outer)

contain their own circular DNA
function semi autonomously

capable of produce some protein (genome and ribosome of mito similar to prok than euk
speculation about mito

example of endosymbiotic hypothesis
mito believed to have developed from early prokaryotic cells that began a symbiotic relationship with ancestorial euk

mito provide energy and host cell provide nutrients
Ribosome
-bound Ribo (w/ER) = rough ER
-free ribo
compose of rRNA and protein

Protein synthesis(2 sub unit)
-small (mRNA 결합)
-large (tRNA 결합)

free ribo synthesize protein for cytoplasm

protein destined for insertion into mem or secretion outside of the cell = synthesize by rough ER`
ER

endoplasmic reticulum
-rough
-smooth
membrane bound

transport protein around the cell

smooth ER:lipid syn, detox

Rough ER: protein syn
Smooth ER
no ribo on its surface and is involved in lipid synthesis and the detoxification of durg and poison
Rough ER
proteins found within membrane or secreted by the cell are made by ribo on RER.

RER (pro) -> lumin RER -> vesicles (pro) ->Golgi
Golgi Apparatus
memb. bound

located btw RER and membrane

protein from RER are modified and sorted based on their destination

CIS face = entrance

Trans face = exit

syn lysosome
lysosome
membrane bound

hydrolasis

tay-sacs diease

breakdown protein, carbohydrates, nucleic acid

maintain Ph 5 inside

in unicellular, lysosome is essential to the digestion of good particle

multi cell, lyso degrade forein particle such as bacteria and damaged cells
Peroxisome
memb bound

breaks down fat

used in liver to dotoxify ex alcohol

peroxides harzadous to the cell if present in cytoplasm-alter DNA
vacuoles

food, contractile, central
food vac

contractile vac = 여분의물배출

central vac = 세포의 해가될수있는 물질대사 분산물의 처문장소 "휴지통"
polysome
group of ribosomes making lots of the same polypeptides
unique characteristics of

Plant cells
no centriole

cellulose cell wall (no cell wall in animal cell)

chorolast

many vacuoles

no lysosome
Diffusion

-P/A
-energy
-type of molecule transported
-con. gradient
passive

No energy required

small nonpolar

High -> low

CO2, O2
Osmosis

-P/A
-energy
-type of molecule transported
-con. gradient
Passive

no energy required

H2O

Low -> high (solute conc)
High ->low (H20)

osmosis is describe in terms of cell.

hypotonic (inside cell has low water than outside surrounding) thus water from outside rush in and cell lyse

hypertonic (inside cell has higer water conc than outside) thus water goes out and cell shrink
hypotonic (osmosis)
cell has less water conc than outside

thus water from outside rush in and cell lyse

in term's of envirnment, envirnment is hypotonic to cell (solute 이 hypo적다 tonic물 바깠envirnment가)

cell is hypertonic to the envirnment
hypertonic (osmosis)
cell inside has higher water conc than outside thus water push out and cell shrink

in term's of envirnment, envirnment is hypertonic to cell (solute 이 hypera많다 tonic물 바깠envirnment가)

cell is hypotonic to the envirnment
facilitate diffusion

-P/A
-energy
-type of molecule transported
-con. gradient
passive

no energy required

channel or carrier protein
Active transport
-P/A
-energy
-type of molecule transported
-con. gradient
active

need energy in ATP

large molecule or ion

low -> high

ex. NA/K pump in neuron
endocytosis
-phago / pino

-P/A
-energy
-type of molecule transported
-con. gradient
engulf

yes need energy

extremly large

L -> H

phagocytosis (cell eating)

pinocytosis (drinking)
exocytosis
Expel

active

yes need energy

extremely large

L -> H
nucleus
memb bound

contain DNA RNA

double layer (inner/outer)

nucleolus: (no membrame)ribosome synthesis by
produce rRNA and produce ribosome

nuclear pore regulate large molecule
What is Acetylcholinesterase in a synapse?
inactivates the nuerotransmitter acylcholine
Concentration of substrate and enzyme
given a limited concentration of enzyme, the rate of the reaction will level off even if more substrate is add

example bank teller and people waiting in line
Where dose enzyme action take place?
at the active site
example of organic compound
contain carbon
carbohydrate, lipids, protein and nucleic acid
glucose and glycogen store ()in animal
energy
() store energy in plants
starch
catabolic reaction
break down large molecule (glucose to co2) and produce energy
anabolic reaction
build up large molecule (sugar from co2) and require energy
absorption
absorbed molecules pass thru cells lining the digestive tract by diffusion or active transport
digestion
converting food into usable soluble form so that it can pass through membranes
assimilation
the build up of new tissues from digested food
regulation
control of physiological activities. maintain its internal environment in a changing external environment (homeostasis)
lipid purpose??
chief means of enegy
release more energy per gram weight than any other class of biological compunds.

also provide insulation and protection
lipid
3 fatty acid and 1 glycerol

(by dehydration)

do not form polymer
steroid have ()fused cyclohexane rings and ()fused cyclopentane ring
three
one
lipid derivitive
phospholipid
waxes
steriod
carotenoids
porphyrin
lecithin
type of phospholipids
major constituents of cell membrane
cephalin
type of phospholipids
found in brain, nerve, and neural tissue
carotinoids
fatty acid like carbon chain containing conjugated double bonds carrying six membered carbon rings at ech end. this compounds are the pigments that produce red, yellow, orange, and brown color in plans and animals

two subgroup are carotene and xanthophyll
carotenes
subgroup of caroteniods(which is lipid derivitives)

is an orange pigment that is the precursor of vitamin A
xanthophlls
subgroup of caroteniods(which is lipid derivitves)
porphyrins
four joined pyrrole rings

porphyrins is lipid derivities
polypetide
polymer of protein
Na-/K+ ATPase
move three sodium ion out for every 2 pottasium ions it lets into the cell
the contractile vacoule of euglena decrease its rate of contraction when the organism i transfered from fresh water to sea water because?
increase in osmatic pressure of the envirnment

when water is moving toward the envirnment, then inc is osmatic pressure in envirnment
in salt water, the solute concentration is greater outside the cell thus osmatic pressure inside the cell is ()
increased
steroids
belong to class of lipid derived molecule with a characteristic ring structure,

steroid (lipid) hormones pass through the cell membrane with ease because they are lipid soluble

ex cholestrol, vitamin D, testosterone, cortisol
gluscose yeild how many calories per gram?
4 calories / gram
protein yeild how many calories per gram?
4 calories per gram
fat yield how many calories per gram
9 calores per gram
wat is PGAL
it is considered the prime end product of photosynthesis and it can be used as an immediate food nutrient,

it can combined and rearranged to form monosaccharide sugars, such as glucose which can be transported to other cells or packaged for storage as insoluble polysaccarides such as starch
chloroplast are thought to have descended form free living () that first invvaded cell and over time developed a symbiotic relationsip with host cell
prokaryotic autotrophs
mitochondria are thought to have evolved from ()
free living prokaryotic heterotrhophs
red algae
are eukaryotic autotrophs that have chloroplst similar to toher algae
one can distinguish btw bacterium and a virus by the presence or absence of ??
ribosome
ribo is organelle that is needed to synthesize protein, virus dose not have any organelle.

virus and bacteria both don't have nuclear membrane
but both have protein, adenine
kinase
enzyme that catalyze the phosphorylation of organic molecul
lipase
enzyme that cleaves the bonds of lipid
amylase
enzyme that hydrolyzes starch to maltose
protease
enzyme that break dow protein