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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the process by which cells and organisms respond to changes within and around them
what body systems control and regulate the body?
nervous and endocrine systems
nerve regulatione example
move your hand off a hot stove wwithout thinking
3 parts of nerve regulation
the stimulus, the response, and the impulse
stimulus and example
a specific change in the environment that affects the nervous system
ex. heat of the stove
response and ex.
a reaction to the stimulus
ex. quickly removing your hand from the stove
an electrical or chemical message that is carried by nerve cells--transferred to the central nervous system, and the CNS then sorts ut and interprets the incoming impulses. the impulse is then sent to organs or glands. these organs and glands provide certain responses to these impulses
2 parts of the human nervous system
1) central nervous system
2) peripheral nervous system
central nervous system
includes the brain and the spinal cord
peripjeral nervous system
made up of the nerves that lie outside the central nervous system--carries impulses to and from the central nervous system
nerve cell
basic unit of the nervous system
another name for nerve cells
what do nerve cells do?
receive impulses and send them to various body parts--make up the structure of the nerves, brain, spinal cord, andr eceptors
what is a nerve cell made up of?
a cell body, dentrites, and an axon
cell body/cyton
contains the nucleus and cytoplasm
groups of cell bodies
what do the ganglia do?
coordinate incoming and outgoing impulses
where are dentrities and axons located?
they extend from the cell body
branches parts of a neuron that receive impulses from other neurons or sense organs--the impulses are then sent to the body
single, long fiber that carries impulses away from the body cells
how many dentrites and axons does a neuron have
many dentrities but one axon
space between the dentrites of one neruon and the axon of anotjeer where impluses cross by means of chemical transmitters
a bundle of neurons or parts of neurons held together by a tough protective membrane
3 different kinds of nerves
sensory neurons, motor neurons, and mixed neurons
sensory neurons
carry impulses to the central nervous system
motor neurons
carry impulses from the central nervous system to various body parts such as muscles or glands
mixed nerves
contain both sensory and motor fibers
what can a nerve be compared to?
a telephone cable line carrying messages to and from your home
major control center of the body
where is the brain located
in the head in an area called the cranial cavity
what surrounds and protects the brain?
the bones of the skull
3 parts of the brain
cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla
the center of thiking, memory, emotions, sensroy impulse interpretation, and all voluntary actitivty. it is the largest part of the brain--used when you take a test
responsible for the coordination of muscles and is the center of balance
affect of alcohol on the cerebellum
reduces the ability of teh cerebellum to coordinate msucle activity--results in slurred speech and unbalanced walking
medulla/brain stem
the center of respiration, ,heartbeat, and other involuntary activities. Controls all activities of your body that you cannot control such as breathing and peristalsis
spinal cord
tubular mass of nerve cells that extends from the brain stem downward through the center of the spinal column.
vertebrae of the spinal column/backbone
surrounds and protects the spinal cord
what does the spinal cord do?
it relays impulses to and from the brain and is the center of some reflex actions
caused by severe damage to the spinal cord--results in loss of feeling and msucle funcction in the lower parts of the body---occurs becuase impulses to a and from the lower body muscles cannot be transmitted to the brain
special structures that are sensitive to stimuli--receive messages
sense organs
external receptors that include the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin
what are some stimuli for sense organs?
light, sound, chemicals, and temperature and pressure changes
internal receptors
located in the internal organs and allow the brain to detect hunger, thirst, muscle position, and carbon dioxide levels in the blood
total response of an organism to a stimuli
involuntary behavior
occurs automatically without conscious control, can be inborn or learned
examples of inborn involuntary behavior
contraction of heart and diaphragm muslces, secretion of glands, and simple replexes such as the knee jerk and iris movement
involuntary actions that are acquired through repetition
writing one's name, riding a bike, and playing a musical instrument
an example of involuntary behavior that is an inborn response to a particular stimulus. nerve impulses travel in a set pathway called a replex arc
what is the path an impulse follows in a reflex arc
receptor-->sensory neuron-->interneuron-->motor neuron-->effector
detailed path in a reflex arc
receptors receive the message
the sensory neuron passes along the message to the spinal cord
the interneuron connects the sensory neruon with the motor neuron. the motor neuron sends the message to the muscle in the leg called the effctor, which does something
why is the reflex arc a short cut for nerve impulses?
you dont have to think about a reflex so it doesntgo on the path all the way up to the brain, like blinking is automatic
voluntary behavior
requires thinking; impulses start in the brain and are carried by nerve cells to muslces or glands. the muslces or glands respond in a certain way.
nervous system disorder --inflammation of membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord--causes by bacteria--symptoms include headache and stiffness of neck--antiobiotic treatment
cerebral palsy
group of birth disorders characterized by disturbances of the motor functions. crippling disorder with no treatment
nervous system idsorder--viral disease of the central nervous system that can cause paralysis--prevented by immunization
a feeling of well-being created by some drugs that affect the central nervous system
caused by drugs that affect the CNS--an inability to stop doing something that a person would not normally do
result of some drugs that affect the CNS when taken continually for a few weeks--means that increasingly larger amounts are needed to get the desired effect
feelings of excitement and high energy caused by some drugs
physical dependence
addiction resulted from drugs--when the drug is withheld, the addict suffers physical illness and withdrawal symptoms
drugs that affect the nervous system