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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Inductive Reasoning
reasoning from a set of specific observations to reach a general conclusion.
Deductive Reasoning
reasoning flows from general to more specific. From general premises we extrapolate to the specific results we should expect if the premises are true. p.15
10 to the 3rd (1000 times basic unit)
10 to the negative 1.
1/10 times basic unit.
10 to the negative 2.
1/100 times basic unit
10 to the negative 3.
1/1000 times basic unit
10 to the -6.
1/1,000,000 times basic unit
When going from a larger unit to a small unit, you move the decimal point to the ________.
When going from a small unit to a larger unit, you move the decimal point to the ______.
Know the proper way to hold and carry a microscope.
Always use both hands to carry it. One hand should be on the arm, and the other should be under the base.
4 Elements that account for approximately 96% of the body weight of humans.
Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
Transmission Electron Microscope. Used to study parts inside a living cell.
a basic unit of living matter separated from its environment by a plasma membrane; the fundamental structure of life
organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and thus different properties. (Glucose & Fructose are an example of this.)
a subatomic particle with a single unit of positve electrical charge, found in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass
the approximate total mass (weight) of an atom; given as a whole number, the atomic weight approximately equals the mass number. The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
the dissolving agent in a solution. Water is the most most versatile known solvent.
A substance that is dissolved in a solution
a sugar molecule consisting of 2 monosaccharides linked by dehydration synthesis.
amino acid
an organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group; serves as the monomer of proteins
ribonucleic acid. a type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases: Adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U). Usually single stranded; functions in protein synthesis and has the genome of some viruses.
lenses that curve outward like the surface of a sphere
functional group
the atoms that form the chemically reactive part of an organic molecule. *attach to the backbone of many carbons. This determines the polarity, water solubility, and charge of the molecule and the type of reaction the molecule can undergo.
adenosine diphosphate. A molecule composed of adenine ( a ribose sugar) and two phospate groups. The high energy molecule ATP is made by combining a molecule of ADP witha third phosphate in an energy-consuming reaction.
atomic number
The number of protons in each atom of a particular element.
a subatomic particle with a single unit of negative electrical charge. One or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom.
non-polar covalent bond
an attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons equally because the atoms have similiar electronegativity. (All charges on ends are equal.)
polar covalent bond
sharing of electrons are not equal. an attraction between atoms that share electrons unequally. The shared electrons are pulled closer to one atom, making it partially negative and the other atom partially positive.
A carbohydrate polymer consisting of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides linked by covalent bonds.
saturated fatty acid
an animal based fat, with no double bonds, - solid at room temperature
means that the phospholipid bas both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions on the same molecule or compound.
lenses that curve inward like the inside of a hollow ball
a protein that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed in the process. (Proteins that speed up chemical reactions breaking or making bonds.)
adenine triphospate. The main energy source for cells. (Initial function in the transfer of energy in cells.)
a subatomic partical that is electrically neutral (has no electrical charge)
have the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons.
A variant form of an atom.
a measure of the relative acidity of a solution, ranging in value from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic). pH stands for potential hydrogen and refers to the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+)
a fat, which consists of a molecule of glycerol linked to three molecules of fatty acid.
unsaturated fatty acid
pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains lack the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and therefore have one or more double covalent bonds. Unsaturated fats had fatty acids to not solidify at room temperature.
The amount of a substance that contains as many atoms, molecules, ions, or other elementary units as the number of atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12. The number is 6.0225 × 10 to the 23rd power, or Avogadro's number. Also called gram molecule.
The many chemical rxn’s that occur in organisms.
Genetic change in a population or species over generations; all the changes that transform life on Earth; the heritable changes that have produced Earth’s diversity of organisms.
The steady state of body functioning; a state of equilibrium characterized by a dynamic interplay between outside forces that tend to change an organism’s internal environment and the internal control mechanisms that oppose such changes.
A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical means. Scientists recognize 92 chemical elements occurring in nature.
A group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Ionic bond
An attraction between two ions with opposite electrical charges. The electrical attraction of the opposite charges holds the ions together.
“Water fearing”; Pertaining to nonpolar molecules that do not dissolve in water.
The attraction between different kinds of molecules.
A biological molecule consisting of simple single-monomer sugars (monosaccharides), two-monomer sugars (disaccharides), and other multi-unit sugars (polysasccharides).
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar hydrophilic head and a nonpolar hydrophobic tail.
Natural selection
(Charles Darwin) Differential success in reproduction by different phenotypes resulting from interactions with the environment. Evolution occurs when natural selection produces changes in the relative frequencies of alleles in a population’s gene pool.
A tentative explanation a scientist proposes for a specific phenomenon that has been observed.
Peptide bond
A covalent bond between to amino acids.
Anion (-)
Negative charge.
Cation (+)
Postive charge.
Covalent bond
Shared electrons between atoms.
“Water loving”; Pertaining to polar or charged molecules that are soluble in water.
The attraction between molecules of the same kind.
An organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bonds and therefore mostly hydrophobic and insoluble in water. Lipids include fats, waxes, phosophlipids and steroids.
A type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four fused rings- three 6-sided rings and one 5-sided ring; examples are cholesterol, testosterone and estrogen.
(scanning electron microscope) used to view dead cells and tissue. Also, is used to see the surfaces of the whole object. Used in research centers, hospitals and doctors’ offices. (can magnify 300,000 x their actual size)
The scientific study of life.
A process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific conformation and hence function; can be caused by changes in pH or salt concentration of by high temp.; also refers to the separation of the two strands of the DNA double helix, caused by similar factors.
The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element.
A substance containing two or more elements in a fixed ration; for example, table salt (NaCl) consists of one atom of the element sodium (Na) for every atom of chlorine (Cl).
Hydrogen bond
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the partially positive hydrogen atom participating in a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the partially negative atom participating in a polar covalent bond in another molecule (or in another part of the same macromolecule).
A sugar alcohol that has three hydrophilic alcoholic hydroxyl groups (OH-) that is soluble in water. (From book- Dietary fat consists largely of the molecule triglyceride, which is made of a molecule called glycerol joined with three molecules called fatty acids via dehydration synthesis p.42)
The smallest kind of sugar molecule; a single-unit sugar; also known as a simple sugar. Monosaccharides are the building block of more complex sugars and polysaccharides.
A biological polymer constructed from amino acid monomers.