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26 Cards in this Set

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chromosomes that have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite sex-parent (meaning the number of chromosomes from the male parent corresponds to the number from the female parent)
a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
-means "two sets"-two complete sets of chromosomes and two complete sets of genes
diploid number
the way the number of chromosomes in a diploid cell are represented-uses 2N
ex. fruit fly had 8 chromosomes
diploid number=
cells that contain only a single set of chromosomes, and therefore only a single set of genes.
haploid number
haploid # for fruit fly (8 chromosomes)
a process of reduction division in which the number of chromsomes per cell is cut in half throuh the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
what are the two distinct stages of meiosis and what is the result by the end of the second stage?
Meiosis I and meiosis II- the end result is 4 haploid cells with a diploid number of 4 (2N=4)
Interphase I
First step, prior to meiosis I. Cells undergo a round of DNA replication, forming duplicate chromosomes.(might not be visible)
Name steps of meiosis in order of occurance.
Prior to meiosis I: Interphase I
Meiosis I: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telephase I and cytokinesis
Meiosis II: Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telephase II and cytokinesis
Prophase I
each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosomes to form a tetrad. Crossing-over can occur here.
a structure formed during Prophase I that contains 4 chromatids.
as homologous chromosomes pair up and form tetrads in meiosis I (prophase I), they may exchange portions of their chromatids. Crossing-over results in the exchange of alleles between homologous chromosomes and produces new combinations of alleles.
Metaphase I
Spindle fibers attach to the chromsomes
Anaphase I
The fibers pull the homologous chromosomes toward opposite ends of the cell
Telephase I and cytokinesis
Nuclear membranes form. The cell separates into two cells, each with 2 chromosomes.
Difference between meiosis I and meiosis II
the chromosomes in meiosis I were replicated and so there was four, but at the start of meiosis II there are two chromosomes in each cell.
prophase II
meiosis I results in two haploid daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell
Metaphase II
the (two) chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.
anaphase II
the sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell
telophase II and cytokinesis
meiosis II results in four haploid daughter cells now contain just two chromosomes each
specialized cells in sexual reproduction
haploid gametes produced by male animals
egg/egg cell
female gamete in aniamls and some plants
how is the cell division in females uneven?
the egg receives most of the cytoplasm and the 3 polar bodies receive less
polar bodies
the other three cells produced in the female during meiosis that usually do not participate in reproduction
What is the one major difference between mitosis and meiosis??
mitosis results in the production of two genetically identical diploid cells, whereas meiosis produces four genetically different haploid cells