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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Vocabulary: genetics
the field of biology devoted to understanding how characteristics are transmitted from parent to offspring.
Vocabulary: heredity
the transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring.
Vocabulary: trait
a genetically determined variant of a characterisitc.
Vocabulary: pollination
the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures [anthers] to the top of a female reproductive structure [pistils] of a flower.
Vocabulary: self-pollination
the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to the stigma of the same flower or to the stigma of another flower on the same plant.
Vocabulary: cross-pollination
the reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant.
Vocabulary: true-breeding
describes organsims or genotypes that are homozygous for a specific trait and thus always produce offspring that have the same phenotype for that trait.
Vocabulary: P generation
parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross.
Vocabulary: F1 generation
the frist generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms.
Vocabulary: F2 generation
the second generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation
Vocabulary: dominant
describes the allele that is fully expressed when carried by only one of a pair of homologous chromosomes.
Vocabulary: recessive
describes a trait or an allele that is expressed only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited.
Vocabulary: law of segregation
Mendel's law that states the pairs of homologous chromosomes seperate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete.
Vocabulary: law of independent assortment
the law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis.
Vocabulary: molecular genetics
the study of the structure of nucleic acids and the function and regulation of genes.
Vocabulary: allele
each of two or more alternative forms of a gene.
Vocabulary: genotype
the entire genetic makeup of an organism [letter].
Vocabulary: phenotype
an organism's appearance or other detectable characteristic that results from the organisms's genotype and the environment.
Vocabulary: homozygous
describes an individual that has identical alleles for a trait on both homologous chromosomes.
Vocabulary: heterozygous
describes an individual that has 2 different alleles for one trait.
Vocabulary: probability
the likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event.
Vocabulary: monohybrid cross
cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
Vocabulary: Punnett squares
a graphic used to predict that resuls of a genetic cross.
Vocabulary: genotypic ratio
the ratio of genotypes that appear in offspring.
Vocabulary: phenotypic ratio
the ratio of phenotypes produced by a cross.
Vocabulary: test cross
the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype withwith a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unkown genotype.
Vocabulary: complete dominance
relationship in which one allele is completely dominant over another.
Vocabulary: codominance
a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed.
Vocabulary: dihybrid cross
a cross between individuals that have different alleles for the same gene.
Vocabulary: incomplete dominance
condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of an individual's two parents because the dominant allele is unable to express itself fully.
Vocabulary: sex chromosome
contain genes that determine the sex of an individual.
Vocabulary: autosome
the remaining genes that are not sex chromosomes.
Vocabulary: sex-linked trait
a trait that is coded for by an allele on a sex chromosome.
Vocabulary: linked gene
pairs of genes that tend to be inherited together.
Vocabulary: chromosome map
a diagram that shows the linear order of genes on a chromosome.
Vocabulary: map unit
a frequency of crossing-over of 1 percent.
VocabularY: germ-cell mutation
occur in an organism's gamete.
Vocabulary: somatic-cell mutation
take place in an organism's body cells and can affect the organism
VocabularY: lethal mutation
cause death, often before birth.
Vocabulary: deletion
the loss of a piece of a chromosome due to breakage.
VocabularY: inversion
a chromosomal segment breaks off, lfips around backward, and reattaches.
Vocabulary: translocation
a piece of one chromosome breaks off and reattaches to a nonhomologous chromosome.
Vocabulary: nondisjunction
a chromosome fails to separate from its homologue during meiosis.
Vocabulary: point mutation
a change that occurs within a single gene.
Vocabulary: substitution
one nucleotide replaces another.
Vocabulary: frameshift mutation
one or more nucleotides in a gene are lost.
Vocabulary: insertion mutation
one or more nucleotides are added to a gene.
Vocabulary: pedigree
a diagram that shows how a trait is inherited over several generations.
Vocabulary: carrier
an organism that have one copy of the recessive allele but do not have the disease.
Vocabulary: genetic disorder
disease or disabling condition that have a genetic basis.
Vocabulary: polygenic
characters influenced by several genes.
Vocabulary: complex character
characters that are influenced strongly both by the environment and by genes.
Vocabulary: multiple allele
genes with three or more alleles.
Vocabulary: sex-influenced traits
an autosomal trait that is influenced by the presence of male or female sex hormones.
Vocabulary: Huntington's disease
an autosomal dominant condition characterized by forgetfulness and irritablity.
Vocabulary: amniocentesis
a procedure used in fetal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus of the pregnant woman.
Vocabulary: chorionic villi sampling
a procedure in which the chorionic villi are analyzed to diagnose fetal genotypes.
Vocabulary: genetic counseling
the process of informing a person or couple about their genetic makeup.
Vocabulary: gene therapy
a technique that places a healthy copy of a gene into the cells of a person whose copy of the gene is defective.
Galactosemia, an autosomal recessive trait, represents an inability to utilize the sugar, galactose. A homozygous normal individual [GG] marries a galactosemic person. Their son marries a normal woman whose father had galactosemia. What is the chance that their child will have galactosemia?
Friederich's ataxia is a hereditery disorder characterized by deformity of the feet, degeneration of the spinal cord, and an early death. It is caused by a recessive gene wich we will designate as [f]. Suppose that both father and mother are heterozygous for this trait. What are the chances that the first child of this mating will develop the disease? What are the chances that the second, third, and fourth children will develop the disease?
1st child: 25%
2nd child: 25%
3rd child: 25%
4th child: 25%
Achondroplasia is caused by an allele, A, that is dominant over the recessive form, a. What happens when a male homozygous for A mates with a female homozygous for a. What will be the genotypes and phenotypes possible from such a mating?
Genotypes: all Aa.
Phenotypes: all affected.
Huntington's disease is caused by a dominant allele [H]. A man heterozygous for the Huntington's allele marries a woman who has the homozygous recessive genotype. They plan to have children. What is the probability that they will have a child who develops Huntington's disease in the later life?
What is the difference between autosomal diseases and sex-linked diseases?
If more boys are affected, then it is sex-linked.