Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
. List and define the major categories of energy needs of the body
• Basal metabolism- energy used while lying at complete rest. No food within 12 hrs.

• Physical activity- exercise

• Neat- Nonexcercise activity thermogenesis.

• Thermic effect of food- 10% of kcals

• Adaptive non shivering thermogenesis.
energy used while lyging at complete rest…no food within 12hrs.
basal metabolism
WHAT factors determine one’s BMR
75% determined by body mass
Which organs/tissues use the most kcals for BMR and how much do they use? What % of body weight do they make up?
Liver, brain heart and kidney= 5% of body wt. and use 60% of basal energy
How much does muscle use and what % of body weight is made up of by muscle?
Muscle= 40% body wt. and uses 25% of basal energy.
Which of the categories of energy needs uses the most energy per day by the average
person? How much is used for this?
BMR 2/3
Define physical activity; NEAT; thermic effect of food. How much energy is
used for each of these?
• Physical activity is excersise. Uses up to 50%. Sedentary up to 10%
• Neat is a non excersise activity movement in every day living-standing, sitting, walking, talking , our job, shopping, fidgeting. Uses 10 to 50% of total calories.
• Thermic effect of food- 10% of kcals
figure the basal energy needs for a man and a woman
Men 1kcal x body wt kg x hrs.
Woman .9kcal x bodywtkg x hrs
10 factors we went over in class that affect energy needs and how each
Affects energy needs.
• Body size/surface area
• Body composition
• Age/growth
• Fever
• Environmental tama
• Low energy intake
• Caffeine
• Sleep
• Menstrual cycle
• activity
How many kids in the U.S. will never graduate from high school? (ratio)
1 in 7 never graduate
How many kids will die from guns in the US, every day according to
the American Academy of Pediatrics?
1 child every 2 hrs according to American Academy pediatrics so that means 12 kids die
How many kids will die from guns in the US, every day according to
The Children’s Defense Fund?
1 child every 3 hrs. 8 kids will die in the U.S. Each day(childrens defense fund
How many Americans do not currently have health insurance?
46 million Americans don’t have health insurance(16%)
How many children
living in poverty have no health insurance?
11% Children.
How many Americans does food insecurity affect? How many of these are children (are hungry or food insecure)?
38 mill Americans. 14 million kids.
What is food security/insecurity
Uncertain or limited availability of adequate supplies of nutritional and safe food.
How many people in the U.S. are hungry (number) and how many kids are (ratio)?
10 million. 1 in 12.
What is the hunger/obesity paradox?
“Hunger and obesity can occur in the same person and same household
Discuss the findings from the 2005 ADA
More fat is eaten when poor.
 -in women greatest problems with obesity occur in those that are most food insecure
 Giving more food results in a lower weight gain in many with food insecurity
 High calorie less nutritious foods are often cheaper and are highly palatable and promote higher consumption and pleasure, satiety, satisfaction.(chips, donuts, chocolate, pizza, hamburgers, French fries.)
 Food secure vs. insecure…. Biggest differences in food group consumption-fruits and veggies patterns:
o Low food supply, mother eats less and overcompensates when check arrives
o Buy fatty foods because of time between checks to prevent hunger
Discuss the causes from the 2005 ADA
 #1 cause is poverty
 Other causes: un or underemployment, cognitive physical disabilityes, lack of education, lack of academic tradition, discrimination, high cost of housing and basic needs, lack of health insurances, single parent familits, violence and feeling of powerlessness, inadeaquate food assistance
Discuss the solutions from the 2005 ADA study
 Read, increase your awarenesss of social problems
 Don’t judge others
 Write, contact your government reps
 Volunteer, time, food, provide jobs.
Define obesity by poundage, % body fat and BMI
Too much body fat-30 or more extra pounds on an average frame. Women more than 30% fat, men 25% fat.
Define overweight by BMI.
Overweight by BMI 25-29
Define severe (morbid) obesity-poundage, BMI…what % of adults in the U.S. are affected by this?
5% have severe morbid obesity (BMI>40) >100 pounds over a healthy wt.
What are the two major fat deposition patterns?
pear and apple
Study the health risks for the apple
shape/android obesity
 Fatcells of central fat deposits are larger than those around the hips and resistant to insulin.
 Decrease ability of insulin to lowere blood glucose
 Insulin and glucose increase over time
 Increased insulin
o Increases triglyceride levels and blood pressure, reduces levels of HDL
o Increases risk of hypertension and heart disease
o Promotes the development of diabetes
Discuss each and which is more likely to cause health problems?. Waist circumferences?
Pear Gynoid-----less of a health risk, but hard mobilizing energy production, except lactation.Waist circumference---- keep <40 inches for men and 35 for women
What percent of adults in the U.S. are obese? Overweight?
33% of adults obese. 65% overweight
What changes have we seen in the rate of obesity/ow. in kids in changes in the past 30
Which method for determining the presence of obesity is considered most accurate?
What does BMI stand for? What does it tell us? Why is it used?
Body mass index. What percentage body fat you have. To see if your under or overweight.
Discuss the health hazards and other disadvantages associated with obesity, in detail! Include the role obesity has in cancers, which ones, and how much of a factor it plays according the the ACS. Other disadvantages?.
 Diabetes
 Hypertension
 Stroke
 Heart disease
 Elevated total cholesterol levels
 Low HDL cholesterol levels
 Certain types of cancer
 Sleep apnea: arthritis gallbladder dis., surgical complications, kidney dis., respiratory problems , gastric reflux, asthma, urinary incontinence, infertility, inflammation
 Life expectancy in adults would be 3 to 6 years shorter than average.
Obesity and Cancer
 Obesity contributes to 20% of cancer deaths in women and 14% in men
 Cancers: breast, uterine, cervical, ovarian, prostate, colon, rectum, kidney, esophagus, gallbladder, pancreatic, liver , lymphoma, stomach.

Other disadvantages:
 Psychological disadvantages- depression, guilt, poor self concept, distorted body images, failure
 Social problems- discrimination, stereo types, activities
 Economic- job discrimination, higher insurance premiums
List and discuss all the various genetic components/evidence of its roles in obesity. What is the MAJOR ROLE of genetics? HOW do we know genes are involved?
genetics- mostly a predisposition! > 250 obesity related
genes interact! (Lancet 2002)
- 25-40% of cases involve genes???
-traits expressed by environmental trigger- thrifty gene
 -build
 -familial/identical twin/adoption studies
 -metabolic errors-LPL (lipoprotein lipase) levels- promotes fat storage, some studies show higher levels
. List and discuss the environmental factors covered in class, involved in obesity. How important is environment?
• -lack of physical activity***- EXERCISE and NEAT!
• -too much sedentary time/leisure time
• availability of food…it is everywhere
• Eating out –food choices, portion size, “eat your $’s worth”
• -ignorance about calorie content and needs
• -dieting…….set up binging???
• -lack of sleep
• Social activities
• -peers
• -lack of TIME***- for shopping, planning, food prep., longer working hours;for exercising, relaxing…
• -socioeconomic and cultural factors
• -quitting smoking
• -skipping breakfast
• -using external instead of internal cues
• -lack of $ for healthy food and safe exercise
• -drinking pop when thirsty…(kids)
• -priorities
What is the major cause of obesity? (That has to ALWAYS be present!)
positive energy balance at some point
How much money is spent on dieting/yr?
$40 billion
According to research, what percent of people will regain weight lost?
75% to 95%
Discuss the downfalls of the low kilocalorie diets (<1000 kcal). Discuss the cycle that often results….leading to wt loss, then gain, then loss, etc./
Water and protein loss; prod. Ketones; decrease BMR; decrease phy act.; can lead to yo yo cycle: deprivation- cravings & depression- overeating and binges.
Discuss the problems with the diet aids/commercial products . Why do most successes (weight losses) ultimately turn into “failures”?
 No OTC diet aids that are effective and safe
 Support grps…Weight Watchers; Overeaters Anon.
 Wt loss clinics??? Jenny Craig; Nutrisystem
 HMR; Optifast; surgery
 Lots of ways to get weight off But to keep it off????
 No easy answers..takes time, motivation, effort; lifetime committment to change and better health!
How much weight should be lost per week? What amount of kcal deficit is needed to lose one pound of body fat?
1-1.5 lb. 2700 to 3500 kcal deficit per week
. Recommended treatment methods- that increase the likelihood of losing and maintaining a wt loss? DISCUSS how they help
 -incorporate exercise
 -change lifestyle- exercise & food habits
 -concentrate on attaining better health rather than a specific weight
 -eat according to the Mayo or “new” pyramid
 -do not have a list of “bad” or “forbidden” foods- food is just food
 -eat enough food for a slow loss and to reduce bingeing
 -possibly increase lean protein for added satiety BUT eat plenty of whole grains, frts and veggies
 -eat breakfast
Also look at the results of the National Weight Loss Registry program.
 Lost >30lbs and no regain for 1or > years
 Exercised..400kcals/day (1hr brisk walking)
 Ate less---1400 kcals/day
 Ate lower fat diets...; lots of frts and veggies and cut back on sugar and sweets
What is cancer?
Cancer is the abnormal and uncontrollable growth of cells.
What % of deaths in the country are caused by cancer? Where does it rank among leading causes of death in the U.S.?
25%. Its 2nd.
List and rank the 3 most common cancers in women; in men.
Men common prostate, lung, colon
Women common breast, lung, colon
List and rank the 3 cancers that most often cause death in women; in men.
Men causing death Lung, prostate, colon
Women causing death lung, breast, colon.
What % of cancers are believed to be related to genetics?
How many cancer deaths in the US are caused each year by tobacco? alcohol? By lifestyle (diet, inactivity) excluding tobacco and alcohol?
Which cancers are more common in smokers?
Tobacco 172,000
Alcohol 19,000
1/3 of cancer deaths in 2001 by lifestyle
Lung cancer
According to the Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention- what ratio of cancers is related to external influences- not genes?
¾ of all cancers are caused mostly by external influences, not genes
How much time might elapse before the promotion step goes on to progression?
carcinogenesis may take 30-40 years!!!!!
List, discuss, give examples of the three major initiators. What do initiators do?
chemicals, uv light/radiation, viruses

- initiators cause genetic change in cells
- the altered cell may remain dormant
- damaged DNA may be repaired
What are promoters? List the cancer promoters
- promoters increase the rate of cell division
example: alcohol, high fat diet, high estrogen levels
At what stage do we say the person HAS cancer?
progression- the person has cancer
- cancer cells grow rapidly (tumors may develop)
- body function is impaired
- cancer may spread (metastasize)
What % of cancers are believed by the NCI to be related to diet?
According to researchers at Harvard (2002), the most important factors in preventing cancer are ____.
Avoid cancer- avoid tobacco and stay lean, exercise, eat fruits and veggies.
Which cancers is alcohol consumption related to? Recommendations?
Linked to mouth, lip, esophagus, stomach, pancreatic, liver and breast cancer.

Don’t drink or limit alcohol consumption up to 1 for women and 2 for men per day.
Prostate cancer- what specifically might decrease risk??? Increase risk???
Lycopene, tomato sauce (2+x/week) may decrease risk

Increase the risk
Men who have 3 or> servings of fish/wk have ½ the advanced p.c. Red meat and processed meat consumption is still linked to an increase in prostate cancer
Colon and rectum cancers- possible # preventable???(CSPI-2002);
9 outve 10 cases preventable
what might protect against these cancers??? Increase these cancers???
• Screening and early detection for polyps important.
• Fruits and veggies probably are protective
• Folate, calcium, aspirin, ibuprofen lower the risk
• Staying lean
• Consuming red meat, smoking and consuming> 1 drink a day increases risk!!!!
• Being sedentary
Cancers that fruits and vegetables may protect against?
Colon and rectum. Lung, Esophageal, stomach, mouth, pharnyx
Breast cancer- risk factors? what might decrease the risk? what increases risk?
-women with a sister, mother, daughter with it have 2-4x averge risk
-women who start menstruating before 12 or stop after 55 have a higher risk b/c of prolonged estrogen exposure.
Having a child before 25, at least before 30 and breastfeeding a year lowers risk
Physical activity
Which foods, food substances and nutrients have anticarcinogenic properties? Discuss.
 Diets high in grains, fruit, vegetables and fiber appear to be
Protective against some cancers
 Many phytochemicals are being identified in fruits, vegetables,
Grains, soy products, tea - that may help protect us against
cancer, by blocking cancer development
 antioxidant nutrients include vitamins C and E, carotenoids and
Selenium; these may help protect against damage to cells and
DNA caused by free radicals.
- Vitamin C may decrease the risk of cancers of the GI, lung, and cervix.
-fish- especially fatty fish with omega 3's may be protective
-Other protective nutrients -
- Include vitamin A, folate, calcium, and vitamin D
- calcium (1800 mg) and vit. D (800 IU) may prevent colon cancer
(Nov. 2000)
-excess calcium (>1500 mg/day) may not be good for the prostate-
What ratio of cancer deaths in the US are caused by tobacco alone?
1/3 tobacco.
2nd hand smoke (number of deaths)?
3000 2nd hand per year