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86 Cards in this Set

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What is equation 1b?
r=(lnRo)/T Ro=Life expectancy of offspring; make sure you half this number for both sexes
What are the "types"
Type 1=humans
Type 1-2=animals
Type3=birds
Type 4 = insects and fish
What are the 3 principle pairwise interactions?
Competition, predator-prey (host-parasite), and mutualism
Why is a species realized niche smaller than its fundamental niche?
b/c of its history and also its interactions with other species
What factors can prevent the extermination of inferior by superior competitors?
Interactions with other species and physical disturbance
Robert MacArthur proposed that Dendroica warblers coexist by virtue of...
behavioral differences that reduce competition among them.
What are examples of interference competition?
Competition for light by plants and competition for space by barnacles.

(NOT Competition for insects by foliage gleaning birds.)
Dynamically, predator-prey systems are...
Oscillatory
What is a trophic level?
the number of steps through which energy passes to reach the organisms in it. The lynx-hare system is a three-trophic level system: Vegetation- Herbivore-Predator
In experiments on hare populations the effect of partial predator exclusion was observed to be...
greater when the hares were given supplemental food
In reconstructing outbreaks of insect pests from tree rings, scientists utilize ring width data from
2 species- they can defoliate vast tracks of forest
The yucca-yucca moth system is an example of a(n)
obligate mutualism-As the name implies, an obligatory contact exists between different organisms. (bee to pollen, etc. kind of mutualism-both organisms benefit)
Ecosystems in which all species are equally likely to interact with each other are (most or least) susceptible to destabilization by external perturbations.
MOST-b/c they develop relationships and become somewhat used to their routines
Describe the interactions between yuccas, yuuca moths, and moths of the genus Prodoxus.
Flowers require services of moths for pollination, moths lay eggs inside ovary, larvae eat a portion of the developing seeds. The Produxus are "fake yucca moths" that lay eggs but don't help pollinate the flower.
K=...
The carrying capacity of environment (equilibrial density) of the population
What characteristics distinguish echinoderms from chordates?
Pentameral vs. bilateral symmetry in adults
Sea stars have...
-a water vascular system which they use for locomotion and gas exchange.
-an eversible stomach which can be inserted between the valves of their molluscan prey, the soft parts of which are then digested "in situ".
-ciliated larvae that are bilaterally symmetric.
Echinoderms are divided into two principal groups (subphyla). Of these, the 1.________ are mostly extinct, being represented by living crinoids (sea lilies and feather stars). The 2._____________include sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, sea stars and brittle stars.
1. Pelmetozoa
2. Eleutherozoa
The hemichordate character suggesting chordate affinities is 1.________ that facillitate 2.__________
1.presence of pharyngeal gill slits

2.gas exchange
Vertebrate trunk muscles are arranged in ">-"shaped bundles called myomeres that attach to sheets of connective tissue, called myocommata. The latter, in turn, are anchored to the _______________.
Vertebral Column

Labeling of the Diagram located in Lecture 9, top of figure 2
Label a. spinal cord (dorsal nerve cord); b. notochord; c. pharynx; d. pharyngeal gill slits; e. heart; f. lung.
Which of the following statements regarding vertebrate gills are correct?
Filter feeding came first; repiratory function, later.
The vertebrate jaw evolved from
the gill arches of primitive chordates.
What is the modern day version of Haeckel's Ontogenetic Law? What was the original from?
The modern formulation is "Ontogeny (development) recapitulates embryonic states of ancestral forms." The original assertion was "Ontogeny recapitualtes phylogeny."
Give two examples from vertebrate evolution that illustrate the modern day version of Haeckel's Ontogenetic Law.
Incorporation of gill arches into the jaw; fusion of upper jaw bones with bones enclosing the braincase; conversion of elements of the reptillian jaw (articular, quadrate) into mammalian middle ear ossicles.
What is the neotenic theory of chordate origins?
Chordates descended from free-swimming tunicate larvae that became sexually competent before settling and metamorphosing into sessile adults.
What is the evidence for the neotenic theory of chordate origins?
Anatomical features of free-swimming tunicate larva - principally the dorsal nerve cord and the notochord.
An important theme in early vertebrate evolution was progressive
integration of the visceral and somatic parts of the body.
Four extant groups of vertebrates?
Agnatha - jawless fish.
Chondrichthyes - cartilaginous fishes (sharks and rays).
Osteichthyes - bony fish.
Tetrapods - amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals.
Most classes of vertebrates are characterized by paired appendages. Which is not?
Agnatha (jawless fish)
Name something true of Placoderms
Included fearsome predators called arthrodires.
What is true of Actinopterygians?
they are also called ray-finned fish. Actinopterygians evolved in freshwater. Re-invaded marine environments during the Mesozoic, in which regard their success may have contributed to the extinction of ichthyosaurs.
Primitive actinopterygians had lungs (Figure 3), a character probably inherited from their placoderm ancestors. In sum, lungs came first: swim bladders evolved from lungs, not vice versa.
What is true of Crossopterygian fishes?
Included species with labyrinthodont teeth.retained the primitive ventral lung, Paired fins evolved into legs,Hinged braincase, Internal nares.
"Pineal" eye.
Know figure 4 on lecture 10
a. scapula; b. humerus; c. radius; d. ulna; e. clavicle
One of the following characters does not point to sarcopterygians as the ancestors of tetrapods. Which one? Why not?
Paired fins

All vertebrates above the grade of placoderms have paired appendages, i.e., the character is not derived.
On this notecard are listed all the possible answers to this question: Which of the following statements regarding lungs and air bladders is not true?
-Air bladders of extant freshwater holostean fishes, Lepidosteus (gar pike) and Amia (bowfin) have a folded inner surface and are capable of some gas exchange.
-In advanced actinopterygians, the bladder is closed and contains specialized areas for gas production and resorption.
-Polypterus, the so-called "bichir" of central Africa, has paired, ventral lungs and is probably representative of the primitive state that was antecedent to all other lung and bladder types.
-Primitively, the air bladder of actinopterygians is connected to the pharynx by a pneumatic duct, a condition which allows the animal to and gulp or discharge air, thereby adjusting its density.
-The first fishes had a dorsal bladder unconnected to the gut. In Devonian times, this structure migrated ventrally and became connected to the gut making possible the evolution of the first lungs.
(The last one) The first fishes had a dorsal bladder unconnected to the gut. In Devonian times, this structure migrated ventrally and became connected to the gut making possible the evolution of the first lungs
The evolution of the amniote egg freed early reptiles from the necessity of reproducing in water. Amniote eggs contain four extraembryonic membranes. Match each of the membranes to the corresponding function in the list below.
a. Allantois 1. encloses the embryo's food supply.
b. Amnion 2. is a repository for dissolved embryonic wastes.
c. Chorioallantoic (formed from parts of the chorion and the allantois) 3. serves as an embryonic lung.
d. Chorion 4. surrounds the amnion and the allantois.
e. Yolk sac 5. surrounds the embryo with a "bag of waters."
a-2 ; b-5; c-3 ; d-4 ; e-1
Fick's Law holds that the rate at which gas diffuses across a membrane...
is proportional to the difference in gas concentration on either side of the membrane.
In which of the following groups goes the oxygen-bearing medium pass unidirectionally over the gas exchange surfaces?
Birds; In all other tetrapods, the respiratory system dead-ends in the lungs, and breathing is tidal.
Counter-current systems are commonly used by vertebrates and other animals to maximize the exchange of substances across membranes, conserve heat, etc. With regard to heat conservation, give three examples.
1. Conservation of heat in the swimming muscles of so-called "hot fish."; 2. conservation of core temperature by preventing loss of heat throught the legs in wading birds; 3. conservation of heat in the thorax (thereby warming the flight muscles) in bees and certain moths.
With regard to the concentration of oxygen, blood flow through the lamellae of fish gills is counter-current to the flow of water over the lamellae. What is the functional significance of this arrangement
Maximizes the transfer of oxygen from water to blood vessels in the lamellae.
Compare the flow of blood and the acquisition of oxygen in fish and insects.
Vertberates have closed circulatory systems, whereby deoxygenated blood is pumped forward by the ventral heart to the gills, where it is oxygenated. Thereafter, the blood flows to the tissues, where oxygen is exchaged for CO2. Finally, the blood re-enters the heart. In insects, the circulatory system is open. The colorless blood accumulates in a pericardial sinus, enters the dorsal heart and is then pumped forward by the dorsal aorta to various sinuses. Here the internal organs are directly bathed in the blood. Gas exchange is independent of circulation. Oxygen enters the animal through spiracles that connect directly to the external environment and is brought to the tissues via a series of branching trachea.
Discuss the transport of CO2 by mammalian erythrocytes.
CO2 is transported by red blood cells as bicarbonate ions, the formation of which is accelerated by carbonic anhydrase. In the tissues (high PPCO2), carbon dioxide diffuses into RBCs where it combines with water to form carbonic acid, H2CO3, which then dissociates into H+ and bicarbonate ion, HCO3-. In the lungs (low PPCO2), the process is reversed and carbon dioxide diffuses out of RBCs. The key to all of this are the reversible reactions
CO2 + H2O XH2CO3 X H+ + HCO3-

To a much lesser degree, CO2 is also transported in combination with de-oxygenated hemoglobin as carboxyhemoglobin.
Red blood cells are produced in the...
bone marrow
Erithropoietin is produced in the...
kidney
The three principal mammalian blood cell types are...
erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and thrombocytes (platelets).
CO2-sensitive chemoreceptors are located in the...
medulla
CO2 is transported principally...
as HCO3- by red blood cells.
The left-shifted oxygen dissociation curve of fetal hemoglobin reflects the fact that...
Fetal hemoglobin has less affinity for DPG than adult hemoglobin.
Among mammals, oxygen dissociation curves...
Are progressively shifted to the right as one goes from large species to small. This probably reflects the fact that per gram metabolic rates increase with decreasing body size.
Cheyne-Stokes respiration illustrates the general principle that...
introduction of time delays in feedback control loops can be destabilizing.
The maintainance of an internal environment consistent with proper physiological function is called...
homeostasis
The brine shrimp, Artemia is able to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions ranging from dilute sea water to the hypersaline conditions of the Great Salt Lake. It does so by being...
Both an osmoconformer and an osmoregulator, depending on environmental conditions.
In addition to exchanging CO2 for oxygen, the gills of freshwater fish exchange...
NH4+ for Na+.
Nitrogenous wastes, ammonia, urea and uric acid, are the breakdown products of metabolizing proteins and nucleic acids. Energetically, the cheapest to manufacture is ammonia, and most bony fish lose this compound in the form of NH4+. By way of contrast, terrestrial animals principally excrete urea or uric acid, even though these compounds are more expensive to manufacture. The reason for this is that...
urea and uric acid are less toxic and can be concentrated to a greater extent before elimination thereby conserving water.
The vertebrate kidney is composed of 1.__________. The proximal 2._______ filters the blood. The resulting filtrate, which lacks cells and large molecules, is concentrated in the distal 3.__________
1.nephrons
2.glomerulus
3.renal tubules
Alligator populations manifest continuing mortality through life. A likely explanation is...
canabalism
Which factors contribute to age-specific variation in fertility in female mammals?
Both delayed onset of reproduction and senescence
Equation 2
T(1/2)=(ln2)/r
Equation 3
nx/no=(lx)/(e^r^x)
The demographic tranisition requires that
fertility goes down and mortality goes down
Name some stuff about the book: The Population Bomb, published in 1968
predicted mass starvation in the US in the 1970's and 1980's. Also, Paul Ehrlich advocated cutting off food aid to countries unwilling or unable to reduce their birth rates.
An optimal life history maximizes...
mx+px(vx+1/v0) for each age class AND
vx/v0 for each age class.
The constant, K, in the logistic equation is
carrying capacity of the environment (equilibrial density of the population).
Gause's yeast cultures ceased growing because
accumulating ethanol (waste product of fermentation) inhibits cell reproduction.
In Gause's competition experiments between different species of Paramecium, the winning species either 1._________or 2.___________
1.produced more waste products
2.or was less sensitive to waste products in the medium
Prior to mass immunization, childhood infections such as mumps, measles and rubella manifested
Continuing oscillations
Populations manifesting chaotic dynamics also manifest...
BOTH sensitivity to initial conditions AND
long term distribution of system states that are independent of the initial conditions
In terrestrial ecosystems, the nutrients on the soil surface derive from...
decomposing litter from dominant plants
In which of the following types of animals would you expect to find dominating hoops of Henle?
Gerbils of the Mongolian Desert
Tyrannasaurus survivorship curves are...
between type I and II
The earth's albedo is...
the fraction of incedent solar radiation reflected back into space before it warms the earth
Redwood story by Huxman...
longer leaves and greater height trap leaf water and hog all the sunlight for photosynthesis
What is the source-sink concept? (Huxman)
water enters source tubes (w/greater sucrose concentration) by osmosis, which causes greater pressure potential at the source, so that the sap moves by bulk flow to the sink. Sucrose is unloaded at the sink, maintaning the solute and water potential gradients.
Explain translocation of materials in the phloem.(Huxman)
water enters source tubes (w/greater sucrose concentration) by osmosis, which causes greater pressure potential at the source, so that the sap moves by bulk flow to the sink. Sucrose is unloaded at the sink, maintaning the solute and water potential gradients.
Explain the pressure-flow model of phloem transport
water enters source tubes (w/greater sucrose concentration) by osmosis, which causes greater pressure potential at the source, so that the sap moves by bulk flow to the sink. Sucrose is unloaded at the sink, maintaning the solute and water potential gradients.
Describe the process of the aquisition of nutrients...
Need CO2 from air, Hydrogen from water, O2 produced in photosynthesis, and N2 enters through bacteria, which realeases it to air. Also needs minerals derived from soil solution (water and soil).
What is a nutrient?
-constitutes of organic material
-osmotic potential or contribute to enzyme store/function
-structural factors in methalloproteins
Factors affects nutrient availability?
Both the Sources of nutrients AND Direct and indirect controls over sources
Where are nutrients located, and where do most come from in terrestrial ecosystems?
98% Mineral Nutrients in soil, 2% from soil colloids, and .2% dissolved in the soil water
What is the big deal about the observation that there is high nutrient availability in mineral and organic forms compared to the rather low nutrient concentration in the soil solution?
– Nutrients freed by weathering and decomposition are collected and protected
from leaching
– Concentration in soil solution remains low and constant
What environments would have low nutrient avaialbility and why?
• Sandy soils – low clay content and thus inadequate
exchange capacity
• High rainfall – excessive leaching of nutrients
• Low rainfall – inadequate soil moisture for organic
matter decomposition
• Cold soils – low decomposition; low root respiration
and thus low nutrient uptake
• Waterlogged soils – inadequate oxygen for root
respiration and decomposition
What is the difference between mass flow and diffusion?
Mass flow in soils is a rapid process, whereas diffusion is
only measured in mm per day in soils
• Where mass flow is insufficient to satisfy plant demand
What kinds of ways have plants evolved for dealing with low nutrient availability (e.g., symbiosys, etc.)
– Root absorption of inorganic ions ammonium and nitrate
– Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen
– Mycorrhizal associations
– Carnivory
How do plants respond in an integrated manner to changes in nutrient availability? (recall the flow chart I showed)
Slows down process to conserve energy
How do differences in plant strategies interact with nutrient availability? (especially nutrient return to the soil)
-complexity of nutrient cycling which is correlated with the diversity of a dominant plant species
Why are certain species often found together in assemblages?
I think huxman might be developing a theory for understanding higher levels of biological organization.
-Clements says its because species are locked together by interactions; Shreve gave criticisms of this hypothesis
-Gleason said these were chance assemblies
-Individualistic hypothesis (important): Initial events dictate the pattern of
replacement of species through time following a disturbance