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113 Cards in this Set

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coleochate
A green algal clade genus that could be a sister group of plants
Thallus
an algal body not differentiated into a root, stem, and leaf
Gametophyte
A multicellular haploid plant formed from the mitosis and cytokinesis of spores
Sporophyte
multicellular diploid plant formed through mitosis and cytokinesis from diploid zygote
Bryophyte
Nontracheophytes
Nontracheophytes
The remaining three phyla of the ten plant phyla which lack trachea, includes liverworts, hornworts, and mosses. gameto phyte generation largest, sporophyte dependent on gametophyte
Liverworts
phylum hepatophyta, green leaflike layers that lie on the ground. Produce archegonia and antheridia on upper surfaces and anchoring water absorbing filaments called rhizoids on lowr. Could contani gammae
hornworts
Phylun anthrocerophyta with sporophytes containing hornlike structures. have stomata that do not close. Contain large, platelike chloroplast and have indeterminate growth. Need nitrogen gas.
mosses
phylum bryophyta that have more species then other n.t. many contain hydroid that dies and leaves water channel. lacks lignin (support cell). Also contains leptoids for sucrose transport. Grow by apical cell division. Gametophyte generation contains protonema, filamentous structure. Buds also form which turn into antheridium and archegonium.
stoma
opening in cell that permits gas exchange
cuticle
waxy covering that covers leafs of all plants to prevent desiccation.
rhyzoid
water absorbing filaments characteristic of liverworts and extinct tracheophyte rhyniophyta
gemmae
found in liverworts and mosses that are a means of asexual reproduction using a lens shaped outgrowth each capable of developing into a new plant.
hydroid
a cell found in mosses that dies and creates a path for water transport.
leptoid
a channel found in mosses that is used sucose transport
antheridium
a gametangia haploid male sex organ found in gametophyte generation that contains spern *flaggellated and need water in nontrach)
archegoniun
a gametangia haploid female sex organ with a swollen base which produces a single egg
Protonemia
The green filamentous growth that arises from spore germination in liverworts and mosses and eventually gives rise to a mature gametophyte.
pyrenoid
A proteinaceous structure found within the chloroplast of certain algae and hornworts. It is considered to be associated with starch deposition.
seta
The stalk of a moss capsule.
calyptra
The protective cap or hood covering the spore case of a moss or related plant
peristome
fringe of toothlike appendages surrounding the mouth of a moss capsule
sphagnum
mosses of that genus that grow in swampy regions which turn dead plants into peat
epiphyte
A plant, such as a tropical orchid or a staghorn fern, that grows on another plant upon which it depends for mechanical support but not for nutrients
tracheophyte
group of seven phyla that possess single conducting cells called tracheids
root
potentially had orgins from a rhizome or a branch that penetrated the soil, characteristic of n.t
dermal tissue
outer covering of a plant consisting of epidermis
vascular tissue
consisting of xylem or phloem, is plants transport system
ground tissue
the rest of plant. used for storage and support, as wel as defensive and attractive purposes
primary growth
upward growth of the plant
secondary growth
growth in diameter of stems and roots, source of bark and wood
apical meristem
located at tips of roots and stems and give rise to primary plant body
vascular cambium
cylindrical tissue form secondary xylem and phloem
cork cambium
sloughing off of excess tissues to prevent damage
phloem
living cells that transport carbohydrates and other nutrients between cells
xylem
dead plant cells that conduct water from root to plant
lignin
compound that strengthens cells walls of plants trach
stele
The central core of tissue in the stem or root of a vascular plant, consisting of the xylem and phloem together with supporting tissues
protostele
A stele that forms a solid core of xylem encased by phloem
siphonostele
A type of stele in which the vascular cylinder surrounds a pith, as in the stem of the sunflower.
eustele
The central cylinder in which the primary vascular tissue is arranged around a pith, as in most seed plants
microphyll
first leaf type, small and evolved from sterile sporangium, found in lycopyta (club mosses)
megaphyll
other leaf type found in ferns and seed plants, evolved from overtoppingof branches
vascular bundle
vascular tissue of young plants, consisting of xylem and phloem, in eudocots form cylinder, and monocots scattered
homospory
ancient trac. which bear a single type of spore
heterospory
a later system with two types of spores, mega and microspores which develop into mega and microgametophyte. formed in micro and megasporangium in sporophyte
megaspore
haploid spore that develops into megagametophyte
microspore
haploid spore that developes form mother microspore into microgametophyte
rhyniophyte
tracheophyte relative that had rhyzomes and dichotomous branching
rhynia
type of rhyniophyte which had a trachea
club mosses
phylum lycopod which evolved earlier than other tracheophytes and had different ancestor. Have apical gowth and many contain strobili, a cluster of spore bearing leaves
Fiddlehead
The coiled young frond of any of various ferns
Whisk ferns
pteriophyta, monophyletic rootless spore bearing plants. Gametophytes live below ground and rely on fungus for life.
equistium
genus of horsetails.
horsetails
sporangia cuve back towards stem and ar caled sporangiophores. Leaves are mgaphylls. grows in segments
Carboniferous
by swamp formation and deposition of plant remains later hardened into coal
ferns
sporophyte gen. dominates ifecycle. Contain sori which ar clusters of sporangia. Most are heterosporous
phyllotaxy
The arrangement of leaves on a stem
distihous
Arranged in two vertical rows on opposite sides of an axis
seed
ripened plant ovule containing embryo. diploid zygote
ovule
A minute structure in seed plants, containing the embryo sac and surrounded by the nucellus, that develops into a seed after fertilization
megaspore mother cell
female diploid cell that develops into megaspore
nucellus
The central portion of an ovule in which the embryo sac develops; the megasporangium.
intugement
the megasporangium is srrounded by sterile sporophyic structures
miropyle
A minute opening in the ovule of a seed plant through which the pollen tube usually enters.
sporophyll
A leaf or leaflike organ that bears spores.
microsporophyll
A leaflike structure that bears microsporangia
ovuliferous scale
Scale of seed cone that contains the megasporangium
pollen
male gemetophyte resulting from mitotic divisions of a spore
pollen strobulous
conelike cluster of scales modified leaves that produce microspores.
prothallial cell
A small, flat, delicate structure produced by a germinating spore and bearing sex organs. It is the gametophyte of ferns and some other plants.
tube cell
production to reach the femle gametophyte
suspensor
A multicellular filamentous structure developed from a zygote in seed-bearing plants and connecting the embryo to the endosp
polyembryony
Development of more than one embryo from a single egg or ovule.
progymnosperm
n : an ancestral fossil type from which modern gymnosperms are thought to have derived
conifer
phylum pinophyta, most abundent of the gynosprms
cycad
cycophyta re palmlike plants growing in tropics
ginkgo
phylum gingkophyta conatin only the maidenhair tree which have two sexes and are separated by and y chromosome
gnetophyta
share characterisics of angiosperms.
ephedra
a gnetophyte
welwitchia
a desert gnetophyte with traplike leaves
dicot
broad leaved flowing plants that consist of 97% of angiosperms
monocot
narrow leaved flowing plants including grasses lillies orchids and palms
carpel
a modified leaf protecting the ovules and seeds and prevents self pollination
ovary
the broad base surrounding the ovule
style
part of the pistil, the apical stalk
pistil
a structure composed of one, or two or more carpels and contains the stigma, style, ovary,and ovule.
anther
contains pollen producing microsporangia
filament
part of the stamen that holds up the anther
petal
outer leaf of flower, sterile non spore bearing
corolla
consist of inner petals
sepal
the outer petals
calyx
collective sepals
perianth
outer envelope of a flower
exine
The outer layer of the wall of a spore or pollen grain
sporopollenin
polymer that constitutes the outer wall of spores and pollen grains.
antipodel cells
in megagametophyte eventually disintegrate
polar nuclei
two haploid cells which fuse with a sperm to create 3n endosperm.
synergids
initial entrance site of one of the two sperm which will eventually break and send sperm to polar nuclei.
dihiscence
The spontaneous opening at maturity of a plant structure, such as a fruit, anther, or sporangium, to release its contents
double fertilization
one sperm fuses with the egg cell, the other fuses with polar nuclei to create 3n endosperm
inflorescense
orderly cluster of flowers
fruit
consists of mature ovary and seeds
twig
when trees lose leaves they leave behind twigs. demonstrate primary and secondary growth have scars showing age
terminal bud
bud at tip of twig
leafscar
result of lateral bud growth
bud scale scars
scales left by buds from the pervious year
pith
center or plant, surrpunded by primary xylem.
secondary phloem
bark
ray
connects sieve tubes to perrynchemia
periderm
watrproofed cells produced by cork cambium.
sieve
make up the phloem transport system
embolism
blocking of vascular system