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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
4 factors that affect the regulation of enzyme activity
-temperature (enzymes in the body work best at temperatures close to 37 degress celcius~98.6 degrees fahrenheit)
-pH level
-amount of substrate
-amount of enzyme
cell theory
-all living things are composed of cells
-cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things
-new cells are produced from existing cells
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier around the cell.
cell wall
strong layer around the outside of the cell membrane that, along with the cell membrane, supports and proects cells, while allowing them to interact with their surroundings
a large structure that contains the cell's genetic material and controls the cell's activities.
the material inside the cell membrane but not including the nucleus. the cytoplasm contains many important organelles
amino acids
-the building blocks of proteins
-compounds with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end
-there are more than 20 different amino acids that are all identical in the regions where they may be hoined together by covalent bonds.
activation energy
the energy that is needed to get a reaction started
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction. they work by lowering a reaction's activation energy.
-proteins that act as biological catalysts
-used by cells to speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.
-generally specific and only catalyze one enzyme at a time
the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
saturated lipids
when each carbon atom in a lipids fatty acid chains is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond, the lipid is said to be saturated. the term sautrated is used because the fatty acid contains the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms.
compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in a ratio of 1:2:1. Living things use carbohydrates as their main source. Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes. THe breakdown of sugars supplies immediate energy for all cell activities.
-are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen atoms
-can be used to store anergy
-some lips are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings
-formed when a glycerol molecule cobines with compounds called fatty acids.
if there is at least one carbon-carbon double bond is a fatty acid, the fatty acid is said to be unsaturated.
lipids whose fatty acids contain more than one double bond are said to be polyunsaturated.
nucleic acids
-macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and phosphorus
-polymers assembled from individual monomers known as nucleotides
-store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.
-two kinds: RNA and DNA
-monomers that make up nucleic acids
-made up of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogeneous base.
-individual nucleotides are joined by covalent bonds to form a polynucleotide, or nucleic acid
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
-kind of nucleic acid that contains sugar deoxyribose
RNA: ribonuleic acid
-kind of nucleic acid that contains sugar ribose
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH. This is one of the ways the body controls pH and maintains homeostasis.
-macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
-polymers of molecules called amino acids
-proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes.
-some are used to form bones and muscles
-others transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight disease
large molecules made from hundreds or even thousands of smaller molecules
large compounds are built by joinging smaller ones together.
monomers, smaller units, join together like links to form polymers.
living things store extra sugar as complex carbohydrates known as starches.
singer sugar molecules (they include glucose as well as galactose, fructose)
the large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
the attraction between molecules of the same substance.
the attraction between molecules of different substances
a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined.
the substance in which the solute dissolves in a solution.
The combination of all of the chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out life processes.
8 characteristics of living things
1. They reproduce
2. They maintain an stable internal environment
3. They interact with their environment
4. They are made up of units called cells
5. They are based on a universal genetic code
6. They grow and develop
7. As a group, living things change over time
8. They obtain and use materials and energy
spontaneous generation
the idea that life could arise from nonliving matter. In today's terms, the idea can be considered a hypothesis.
a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience
a possible explanation for a set of observations or an answer to a scientific question.
a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observation.
mixture where all of the components are evenly distributed.
the substance that is dissolved in a solution
sexual reproduction
Two cells from different parents unite to produce the first cell of the new organism.
asexual reproduction
a single parent produces a new organism
the process by which organisms keep their internal conditions relatively stable
pH scale
a measurement system to indicate the concentration of H+ ions in a solution. It ranges from 0 to 14. At 7, the concentration of H+ ions and OH-ions are equal.pH below 7 has more H+ ions than OH- ions and above 7 has more OH- ions than H+ ions. Each step of the pH scale represents a factor of 10. For example, a pH of 4 has ten times as many H+ ions than a pH of 5.
cell fractionation
a technique biologists use to separate the different cells parts. THe cells are broken in a special blender and then put in a centrifuge, which spins and causes the pieces to separate into layers.
What are the subatomic particles that make up atoms??
protons, neutrons, and electrons
atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain. isotopes of the same element have the same chemical properties.
radioactive isotopes
their nuclei are unstable and breaks down at a constant rate over time. they give off dangerous radiation. used to determine the ages of rocks and to treat cancer and kill bacteria.
Any compound that forms H+ ions in a solution. acidic solutions contain higher concentrations of H= ions than pure water and have pH value below 7. Strong acids tend to range from pH 1-3.
a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions. the physical and chemical properties of a compound are usually very different from those of the elements from which is is formed.
ionic bond
formed when one of more electrons are transferred from one atom to another. the atoms become ions.
A compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH- ions) in a solutions. Basic, or alkaline, solutions contrain lower concentrations of H+ ions that pure water and have pH values above 7. Strong bases have pH values ranging from 11 to 14.
positively and negatively charged atoms formed from ionic bonds.
covalent bonds
forms when electrons are shared between atoms.
2 electrons shared-single bond
4 shared- double bond
6 shared-triple bond
smallest unit of more compounds
van der Waals forces
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules. they can hold molecules together, especially when molecules are large.
polar molecules
a molecule in which the charges are unevely distributed. a water molecule is polar because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms. the oxygen end of the molecule has a slight negative charge and the hydrogen end of the molecule has a slight positive charge.