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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Obtaining a gene of interest
Reversing process of translation using an enzyme.
Gene therapy
Putting a gene of interest into a virus, which injects itself into cells and replaces defective gene with normal gene. Only 1% success rate.
Chemical evolution
Produced amino acids, nucleotides, and lipids, but first cells weren't formed for a billion years.
Stanley Miller's experiment
Began in 50's, mimicked primitive earth with volcanic activity, lighting, and no oxygen.
RNA as an enzyme
Self-replicating, makes peptide that can enhance replication
Lipid spheres
Form spontaneously, around RNA and polypeptides to form first cells
Radiometric dating
Form of carbon dating to measure age of rocks (ratio of C12:C14)
Charles Lynell
Found seashells on top of dry mountain (= sea life had once been there)
The one big landmass that was once all the continents together.
Continental drift
When the pangaea separated and all the continents separated. Makes for more diversity because of most coastline.
Plate techtonics
Plates rubbing against each other to create vocanoes above ground and thermal vents underwater
Permian extinction
96% of every living thing went extinct.

Dinosaur extinction: asteroid, iridium
Hypothesized a flawed theory which stated that the stretching of a giraffe's neck to reach high food created the evolution of a long neck.
Evolution is: variation in offspring; natural selection. Changes in environment, mutations in DNA, determine evolution
Darwin's finches
Finches on S. American mainland were similar to finches on Galapagos. Evolved beak shape according to food availability
Open niche
A place where there's no other species of the same type existing.
Sent essay to Darwin before Darwin's book.
Not considered alive- require host
When dried, form crystals
Specific to what they can infect
Protein coat with nucleic acid
HIV virus
Needs mucus membrane
Binds to helper-T cell & injects DNA so it will stop producing normal stuff and produce viruses instead
Uses our membrane w same receptor proteins
Fossils (as evidence of evolution)
Links dinosaurs and birds.
Transition organism between reptiles and birds
Comparative morphology
Homology: Mammalian forelimb, analogy
Mammalian forelimb
Same shape, different function.

Descent with modification
Form guided by environment, even with organisms of bird, fish, and mammal (dolphin, penguin, shark)
Comparative embryology
All vertebrates share some embryological structure
Most animals have blastula stage
Plants have alternation of generations
Alternation of generations
(In plants) Haploid cells grow for a little bit before joining another.
Molecular biology
DNA nucleotide matches between two species
Artificial selection
Take offspring with desired traits and breed them to make more offspring with desired traits.
Dogs, cats, cows, wheat, melon
Hybrid vigor
A more diverse set of genes allows hybrid offspring to be stronger and healthier
5 mechanisms of microevolution
Genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, non-random mating, Natural selection
Genetic drift (2)
Founder effect
Population bottleneck
Founder effect
In a new colony, small populations branch off the larger one, creating change in frequency of allele.
Population bottleneck
Species dwindle then increase, creating less genetic diversity
Gene flow
Migration: Introduces new alleles and changes allele frequency, decreasing differences
Raw material for evolution (beneficial mutations critcal) 1/1,000-1/1,000,000
Non-random mating
(also called sexual selection)Keeps population pure and healthy and gene flow strong. Plants- limited pollinators, self-pollination
Natural selection
Survival of most fit offspring; guided by environment. 'Garden' of evolution
Directional selection
All offspring go to one extreme of spectrum
Diversifying selection
Offspring go to both extremes and middles ones die out (more rare)
Stablizing selection
Offspring in the middle survive (infant birth weight)
The outcome of evolution: how new species arise
Population of organisms with similar anatomy and with the potential in nature to produce fertile offspring
Allopatric speciation
A barrier arises between two populations of same species. Eventually, when the two populations can no longer interreproduce, they are no longer the same species
Sympatric speciation
Adding chromosomes to one species creates another (meiosis malfunction)
When gametes don't divide
Adaptive radiation
ex. Darwin's finches adapting to new environment
Reproductive isolating mechanisms
Things that keep species separate:
Hybrid infertility
Geographic isolation
Two species can't reproduce together because they don't live in the same area
Ecological isolation
Two species can't reproduce together because they don't come in contact, even if they do live in the same area.
Temperal isolation
Two species can't reproduce together because they mate at different time periods
Behavioral isolation
Two species can't reproduce together because they aren't attracted to each other
Mechanical isolation
Two species can't reproduce together because they aren't physically compatible
Gamete isolation
Two species can't reproduce together because the egg and sperm don't fuse
Hybrid infertility
Even though two species successfully reproduced, offspring are sterile.
Human evolution
Left tree-dwelling habitat;
Established social behavior;
Front-facing eyes;
Opoosing digits;
Enlongated larynx
Kingdom & domain largest, contain most species;
Species smalles, specific to organism.
Round-shaped prokaryotes
Rod-shaped prokaryotes
Spiral-shaped prokaryotes
3 Types of Archaea
Anaerobic methane producers, halophiles, thermophiles
Anaerobic methane producers
Archaea that are in gut and sewage treatment plants. Major carbon cyclers
Salt-loving archaea. In Great Salt Lake and oceans
Archaea that live in boiling water. Their enzymes are used for PCR.
Chemosynthetic bacteria
Bacteria that live at the bottom of the ocean and eat hydrogen sulfide gas.
Photosynthetic bacteria
Form base of food webs, but most don't produce oxygen
Photosynthetic bacteria that produces O2. Converts N3 into ammonia.
Bacterial reproduction
Binary fission; 20 min. regeneration time
Limits of bacterial reproduction
Lack of water and nutrients; extreme temps; antibiotics
Keep bacteria alive in absence of water, making them resistant to dessication (drying out)
Needed to kill bacteria with endospores; does this by raising temp and pressure.
C. botulinum
Botulism; 1 g. can kill a million people. Also used in botox!
Nutritional diversity of bacteria
Can eat oil, pollutants, things without water.
Can't metabolize: elements, plastic, some metals
Disease causing bacteria
Pathogens- only small %; fairly recent understanding
Selective toxicity
Antibotics that are toxic to bacteria but not us
Nitrogen fixation
Convert Nitrogen gas into combination with O2 or H.
Symbiotic bacteria
Bacteria in root modules of legumes. Mutualistic --> bacteria gives plants useable nitrogen, and plants give bacteria home.
Bacteria and fungus are main decomposers
Industrial wastes (mining activities)
Food production
Vitamin B12 to make red blood cells.
Endosymbiont theory
Aerobic prokaryote moved into cell to become mitochondria, which formed protozoa; photosynthetic prokaryote moved in to become chloroplasts.