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75 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
What are the types of experimental studies?

1. Randomized Clinical trials
2. Open label trials 3. Crossover trials 

What are the types of observational studies?

1. Cohort
2. Case Control 3. Crosssectional 4. Case reports 5. Case series 

What is the goal of peer reviewed journals?

To minimize publication of articles that have flawed methods or are poorly written.


What are the advantages of primary literature?

1. Contains current, original, and "cuttingedge" information
2. Peer review process 

What are the disadvantages of primary literature?

1. Consequences of flaws in study methodology
2. Need to have knowledge of study design and statistics to appropriately interpret the information 3. Often takes time for study results to be accepted into clinical practice 

What are some characteristics of a reputable journal?

1. Peerreviewed
2. Editorial board 3. Instructions for authors 4. Minimal to no advertisements 

What is the purpose of the abstract?

It briefly presents an overview of the study. There should be enough information in the abstract to determine if the article is of any interest, however clinical decisions cannot be made based upon the abstract.


What is the most important section of an article?

The methods
If you don't understand this, then it will be difficult to understand the rest of the article. 

Characteristics that patients had to meet to be entered into the trial.

Inclusion criteria


Characteristics that prevent a patients enrollment into the trial.

Exclusion criteria


Where should the results be interpreted?

They should be interpretted in the discussion.


Should the funding source be revealed in the article.

Yes


What is this study design?
Subjects are assigned to an intervention by the study investigator Data is prospective The purpose is to determine a cause and effect relationship 
Randomized controlled trial


What are the goals of a randomized controlled trial?

equivalent sampling groups
control the intervention obtain reliable measurements of the reponse 

What are the advantages of RCT?

1. gold standard for efficacy trials
2. Causality 3. Less bias 

What is the runin period?

It is a prerandomization period of observation used to determine adherence to therapy.


Type of blindness where subjects OR investigators do not know what group subjects have been assigned.

Singleblindness


Type of blindness where both the study investigator AND subjects do not know what treatment a subject is receving.

Doubleblindness


STudy investigators adn subjects know what treatment the subject is receiving.

openlabel


What is internal validity?

The "truth" about inferences made from a causeeffect relationship. How well potential sources of bias are eliminated.


What is external validity?

Generalizability
How your study applies to the rest of the world. 

What is a crossover trial?

It is self controlled and subjects recieve both the treatmentAND the control.


When is a washout period needed?

During a crossover trial or Nof1 trial when the treatment is being changed for the group.


What is a clinical trial involving only 1 person?

Nof1 trial


Purpose of trial is to determine if the quality, safety, and efficacy of generic drugs differs by no more than a specific amount to brand name drugs. Conducted in healthy volunteers.

Bioequivalence studies


Purpose of study is to show that one treatment is not worse than another treatment or active control.

Noninferiority trial


Study is based on presence or absence of a disease.
Compare outcomes of patients from naturally occuring exposures, treatments, characteristics. Determine an association and NOT a causation 
Observational study design


A population that can be enumerated (listed).
Subjects listed as exposed or unexposed. No randomization of patients Strongest t observational design. 
Cohort Study


What are the advantages of a cohort study?

1. longitudinal
2. can measure incidence 3. can study multiple disease outcomes from a single study 

What are the disadvantages of a cohort study?

1. inefficient for rare outcomes
2. length of followup 3. expensive 4. labor intensive 

Retrospective
Case: subject with the outcome of interest Control: subject without the outcome of interest Cases and controls: need to be sampled from the same population 
Casecontrol study


What are the advantages of Casecontrol studies?

efficient for rare diseases
appropriate for conditions that take years to develop can study multiple 

What are the disadvantages of casecontrol studies?

1. maybe biased depending on how cases and controls are selected
2. may be difficult to assess exposure retrospectively 3. less confidence that exposure preceded the outcome 

What is prevalance?

The number of people with the outcome of interest out of the total population


What is this type of study?
Prevalence study snapshot in time meausurements are taken at a single point in time 
Crosssectional study


What are the advantages of crosssectional study?

quick
Easy Inexpensive 

What are the disadvantages of crosssectional studies?

Difficult to know if exposure preceded outcome of interest
transient effects prone to bias and confounding (selection bias) 

What type of observational study design would be used to write up a report on a drug toxicity?

Case studies, case reports, case series.
Observational report on the clinical course of disease. 

Provides information on sociologic and psychologic variables?

Survey Research


What types of bias are involved with Survey Research?

1. Sampling bias
2. Response bias 3. Measurement bias 4. Nonresponse bias 

Combines results from other trials to formulate an overall conclusion.
Reviews the evidence AND provides a quantitative assessment. Appropriate for both experimental and observational studies. 
MetaAnalysis


Phase of testing for a new drug or treatment.
Tested in a small group of healthy volunteers. Evaluates safety, kinetics, side effects, not effecacy 
Phase I


Phase tested in a larger group of patients (100s)
Evaluates efficacy and safety Give to people with disease 
Phase II


Phase tested in an even larger number of actual patients (100s to 1000s)
Evaluates efficacy, benefits, range of side effects. If this phase is successful, the company can apply to FDA for approval. 
Phase III


Postmarketing surveillance
Evaluates long term side effects, pharmacoeconomics 
Phase IV


Claims there is no difference between the groups.

Null Hypothesis


Disagrees with the null hypothesis

Alternative hypothesis


Designed to detect deviation from the null hypothesis in only 1 direction.

Onetailed test
Appropriate if investigators have an explanation as to the outcome of the study. 

Designed to detect deviations from null hypothesis in both directions.

Twotailed test (nondirectional)
Appropriate if investigators have no expectations as to the outcome of the study 

Probability of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.

Alpha value
usually 0.05 (5% chance) 

Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.

Type I error


How does the pvalue relate to the alpha value and the null hypothesis.

If the pvalue is less than the alpha value, the null hypothesis is rejected.


Accepting the null hypothesis when it is actually false.

Type II error


What is the value relating to the probabability of comitting a type II error?

Beta
usually set at 20% 

Variable which includes an outcome of interest which should change in response to intervention.

Dependent variable


Variable which includes the intervention, what is being manipulated.

Independent variable


Types of Data
named categories with no implied order among the categories. can be dichotomous or multiple often described by proportions or percentages i.e. yes, no answers 
Nominal Data


Types of Data
data is ranked in specific order as move from one group to the next, it becomes "better" i.e. pain scale 
Ordinal Data


Types of Data
Equal distances between values arbitrary zero point differences between numbers are meaningful Ratios between numbers are NOT meaningful!!! i.e. celcius temperature scale 
Interval Data


Types of Data
equal distances between variables Meaningful zero point!! Differences AND ratios between numbers are meaningful i.e. HR and BP 
Ratio Data


True or False?
Ratio and Interval Data can be grouped under the term "Continuous data" 
True
Not treated differently from a statistical perspective 

What is Parametric Data?

collected from sample that can be described using a 'normal distribution'
data is symmetrical, continuous, and forms a bellshaped curve usually refers to interval or ratio data 

What is Nonparametric data?

collected from sample that is NOT normally distributed
usually refers to nominal or ordinal data 

Arithmetic average of the observations?
Interval and ratio data 
Mean
_ X = mean sensitive to extreme values 

Value such that half of the observations fall above it, and half below it.

Median


Value or category that occurs most frequently.

Mode


What is skewness?

Outlying observations occur in only 1 direction.


What are the 4 measures of dispersion?

1. Range
2. Percentiles/IQR 3. Standard deviation/variance 4. Standard error of the mean 

What type of data can the range be used for?

Ordinal, Interval and Ratio (esp with skewed distribution)


What measure of distribution is often used to compare an individual with a norm?

Percentiles


What is the Interquartile Range?

It is the difference between the 25th and 75th percentiles or the middle 50 percent.
It is used for ordinal, interval, and ratio data 

What is SD/variance used for?

Interval and Ratio data (symmetric)
It is sensitive to extreme values 

What are the questions you should ask to determine which statistical test was used?

1. What type of data?
2. How many groups? 3. Is the data parametric or nonparametric 

What statistical test is the nonparametric equivalent of ANOVA?

KruskalWallis Test


What test is used to determine if there is an association between two variables?

Regression
