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48 Cards in this Set

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locomotion
the interaction of muscles with the skeleton that results in body movements
what does locomotion do for organisms?
allows organism to gather food, seek shelter, and escape dangerous situation00increases chances for survival of a species by enabling members nof the species to find suitable mates
what does human locomotion involve?
joints and tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscles, tendons, and ligaments
bones
type of connective tissue composed mainly of calcium compounds --
why is the bone hard??
due to the presence of calcium and phosphorus minerals
what are bones important for??
-make up major part of framework of the human endoskeleton
-provide a place for muscle attachment
long bones
bones of your arms and legs
what are the ends of long bones covered with?
cartilage
periosteum
tough membrane--outer covering of long bones
marrow
inner tissue of some bones where red and white blood cells are produced
endoskeleton
an inner skeleton
what does the endoskeleton do?
it acts are a franework for supporting other organs of the body.
-it produces internal organs and allows body movement
how many bones does the human endoskeleton have?
206 bones
was is the endoskeleton composed of?
skull, vertebral column (spinal column), breastbone and ribs, and limbs (arms and legs)
cartilage
the fibrous, flexible, elastic connective tissue found in the human skeleton.
where is cartilage found in adults?
in the nose, ears, and trachea (flexible support), at the ends of ribs and other bones (flexibility), and between the vertebrae and bones (cushioning)
joints
bones connected at places--allow bone movement
ball and socket joints
permit circular movement--located at the hip and shoulder
hinge joints
-allow back and forth movement--located at elbows and knees
pivot joints
permit roatating movement--lockated where skull joins the vertebral column
gliding joints
allow a sliding action--located at wrist and ankle
fused joints
not movable and located in the skull--help keep joints cushioned and lubricated
muscles
produce body movement by pulling on bones when they contract--produce body heat when they contract
3 kinds of muscle tissue
skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
involuntary muscles
responsible for involuntary body activities such as heart contractions and peristalsis--you cannot control the actions of involuntary muscles
TWO EXAMPLES OF INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES
smooth muscle and cardiac muscle
smooth muscle
found in the walls of arteries and organs of the body--contraction of smooth muscle is controlled by the nervous system
cardiac muscle
found in the walls of the heart-causes the heart to beat
voluntary muscles
attach to the skeleton and can be controlled for locomotion
example of voluntary muscle
skeletal (striated) muscle
skeletal/striated muscle
are attached to the bones of the skeleton--bones and body parts are moved by the contraction of these muscles
how do skeletal muscles usually function?
in opposite pairs
extensor
one muscle of the pair of skeletal muscles, which extends (straightens) the limb
flexor
the other muscle of the skeletal muscle pair, which bends the limb
example of extensor and flexor pair
biceps and triceps of the upper arms
-bicep--flexor--located on the front of the upper arm--when the bicep contracts, the forearm is pulled toward the front of the shoulder, causing the arm to bend
-tricept-extensor--located on the back of the upper arm--when the tricept contracts, the arm straightens out
what causing muscles to contract??
when nerves direct impulses to muscles
where do muscles get the energy needed to contract?
comes from energy stored in chemicals such as glycogen
muscle fatigue
muscle cells will continue to operate even if they do not receive sufficient oygen for aerobic respiration, so they change to anaerobic respiration and produce lactic acid, which causes muscles to hurt and causes you to rest so taht your muslces can get oxygen again
what are tendons and ligaments composed of?
connective tissue
tendons
bands of dense tissue that connect muscles to bones
ligaments
tough bands of tissue that hold bones together at joints
fractures
broken bones
sprain
tearing or stretching of the ligaments that hold together the bone end in a joint
hernias
an organ or tissue sticks out through a weak area in the muscle or other tissue that usually contains it such as the abdominal wall. the cause is usually weakness and a bulge in the wall
arthritis
inflammation of joints--causes stiffness, swelling, soreness, or pain
osteoarthristis
a type of arthritis that results from wear and tear on the cartilage at the joints
rheumatoid arthritis
causes swelling and pain and can occur at any age--
tendonitis
inflammation of a tendom, usually at the bone junction