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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
evolution of plants
plants: multicellular, photoautotrophic eukaryotes

--terrestrial organisms that evolved from green algae ancestor

--plants evolved adaptations for life on land
for below-ground processes

plant structure that anchors the plant in the soil, absorbs and transports minerals and water, and stores food
shoots and leaves
for above-ground processes

the stem and leaves of a plant
a chemical that hardens cell walls

keeps stem hard and makes it stand up
vascular tissue
system of tube-shaped cells that branch throughout the plant

two types of tissues specialized for transport:
1. xylem
2. phloem
transports water from roots to leaves

-consists of dead cells with tubular cavities
consists of living cells that distribute sugar from leaves to roots and other nonphotosynthetic parts of plant
reproductive adaptations and gametangia
1. a reproductive organ that houses and protects the gametes of a plant without rehydrating
2. sperm carried by wind or animals
3. fertilization and development within female parent
4. offspring (seeds) dispersed by wind or animals
4 major periods of plant evolution
1. nonvascular plants--bryophytes
2. vascular, seedless plants--ferns
3. seed-producing plants--gymnosperms
4. flowering plants--angiosperms
mosses, lacks vascular tissue,

only in moist habitats

lacks lignin, grow as "mats"

reproduction still tied to water
seedless, first vascular plants

reproduction also tied to water

-in tropical climates
colder, drier conditions set the stage for evolution of seed

first seed producing plants

conifers, tallest largest organisms
1. embryo
2. food supply
3. protective covering
flowering plants w/ 250,000 species

flowers are modified leaves
anatomy of the flower
1. sepals
2. petals
3. stamen
4. carpel
at the bottom of the flower, usually green

-enclose flower before it opens (green wrapping on rose bud)
above sepals, usually the showiest part of flower and attracts insects and other pollinators
each consists of a stalk (the filament) bearing a sac called an anther, in which pollen grains develop
consists of a stalk--the style--with an ovary at the base and a sticky tip known as the stigma, which traps pollen

ovary--protective changer containing one or more ovules, in which the eggs develop
eukaryotes--mostly multicellular, heterotrophic that obtain nutrition by absorption

--mushrooms, mold, yeasts
absorptive nutrition
1. enzymes digest food outside body
2. digested food absorbed into body

--fungi are important as decomposers
-some are parasites
fungal structure/anatomy
hyphae--minute threads of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane

mycelium--feeding network of the fungus

reproductive structure containing spores