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22 Cards in this Set

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evolution of plants
plants: multicellular, photoautotrophic eukaryotes

--terrestrial organisms that evolved from green algae ancestor

--plants evolved adaptations for life on land
roots
for below-ground processes

plant structure that anchors the plant in the soil, absorbs and transports minerals and water, and stores food
shoots and leaves
for above-ground processes

the stem and leaves of a plant
lignin
a chemical that hardens cell walls

keeps stem hard and makes it stand up
vascular tissue
system of tube-shaped cells that branch throughout the plant

two types of tissues specialized for transport:
1. xylem
2. phloem
xylem
transports water from roots to leaves

-consists of dead cells with tubular cavities
phloem
consists of living cells that distribute sugar from leaves to roots and other nonphotosynthetic parts of plant
reproductive adaptations and gametangia
1. a reproductive organ that houses and protects the gametes of a plant without rehydrating
2. sperm carried by wind or animals
3. fertilization and development within female parent
4. offspring (seeds) dispersed by wind or animals
4 major periods of plant evolution
1. nonvascular plants--bryophytes
2. vascular, seedless plants--ferns
3. seed-producing plants--gymnosperms
4. flowering plants--angiosperms
bryophytes
mosses, lacks vascular tissue,

only in moist habitats

lacks lignin, grow as "mats"

reproduction still tied to water
ferns
seedless, first vascular plants

reproduction also tied to water

-in tropical climates
gymnosperms
colder, drier conditions set the stage for evolution of seed

first seed producing plants

conifers, tallest largest organisms
seed
1. embryo
2. food supply
3. protective covering
angiosperms
flowering plants w/ 250,000 species

flowers are modified leaves
anatomy of the flower
1. sepals
2. petals
3. stamen
4. carpel
sepals
at the bottom of the flower, usually green

-enclose flower before it opens (green wrapping on rose bud)
petals
above sepals, usually the showiest part of flower and attracts insects and other pollinators
stamens
each consists of a stalk (the filament) bearing a sac called an anther, in which pollen grains develop
carpel
consists of a stalk--the style--with an ovary at the base and a sticky tip known as the stigma, which traps pollen

ovary--protective changer containing one or more ovules, in which the eggs develop
fungi
eukaryotes--mostly multicellular, heterotrophic that obtain nutrition by absorption

--mushrooms, mold, yeasts
absorptive nutrition
1. enzymes digest food outside body
2. digested food absorbed into body

--fungi are important as decomposers
-some are parasites
fungal structure/anatomy
hyphae--minute threads of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane

mycelium--feeding network of the fungus

reproductive structure containing spores