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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
two systems of internal communication and regulation in animals
nervous system and encocrine system
hormones may reach all parts of the body
BUT only certain types of cells are equipped to respond - target cells
system involving electrical signals
-rapid short duration
nervous system
system involving chemical signals
-longer response time, longer acting
endocrine system
-organic molecules, formed and secreted in one location, transported to another location where they exert their effects
-release their secretions into ducts that lead to the outside of the body or into the digestive tract
exocrine glands
ductless, hormone-producing glands that release their secretions into blood
endocrine glands
-pancreas exocrine
-pancreas endocrine
three major classes of molecules that function as hormones in vertebrates
-proteins and peptides
-amines derived from amino acids
cells with receptors for hormones
target tissue
hypothalamus hormone
hormones released from the posterior pituitary and hormones that regulate the anterior pituitary
pituitary gland hormone (posterior)
oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone
-releases neurohormones made in hypothalamus
pituitary gland hormone (anterior)
growth hormone, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
thyroid gland hormone
triiodothyronine and thyroxine, calcitonin
parathyroid gland hormone
parathyroid hormone - raises blood calcium level
pancreas hormones
insulin, glucagon
adrenal glands - medulla - hormone
epinephrine and norephinephrine
gonads hormone - testes
gonads hormone - ovaries
estrogen, progesterone
pineal gland hormone
cells in hypothalamus that synthesize peptide hormones, store them, and release them
neurosecretory cells
pea-sized gland that dangles from hypothalamus by a stalk
pituitary gland
two lobes in the pituitary gland
anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary
function of thyroid stimulating hormone
-which gland?
-stimulate release of thyroid hormones
function of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
females - estrogen secretion and egg maturation
male - stimulate sperm formation
gland of growth hormone
adenohypophysis (part of pituitary gland)
function of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
enhances water reabsorption in kidneys
function of oxytocin
induces uterine contractions and milk ejection
-describe interaction between hypothalamus and pituitary gland posterior
1. cell bodies of secretory neurons in hypothalamus synthesize ADH and oxytocin
2.hormones move down axons of secretory neurons
3. action potential triggers release of hormones and enter blood capillaries in posterior pituitary
4. small blood vessels deliver hormones to general circulation
-describe interaction between hypothalamus and pituitary gland anterior
1. cell bodies of secretory neurons secrete releasing and inhibiting hormones
2. first capillary bed in base of hypothalamus picks up hormones
3. hormones go to second capillary bed in anterior pituitary
4. releasing or inhibiting hormones diffuse out of capillaries and act on endocrine cells in anterior
5. hormones secreted from anterior go to general circulation
examples of abnormal pituitary output
gigantism, dwarfism
-promotes growth directly and stimulates the production of growth factors by other tissues
growth hormone
-functions of insulin,glucagon
insulin - lowers blood sugar
glucagon - raises blood sugar
how does normal blood sugar work?
starch forms glucose and blood glucose level goes up, triggers insulin release, blood level sugar goes down, triggers glucagon, breakdown into glucose, raise blood glucose level,
beta cells
alpha cells
type 1 diabetes
insufficient insulin keeps blood sugar level up
chart in endocrine system powerpoint
blood glucose level control
key terms
go over them!!
effect of hormones in target cells
gene activation, protein synthesis, alterations in existing enzymes
pathway of a water soluble hormone
exocytosis out of cell, into blood stream directly, and go onto signal receptor on target cell membrane
pathway of a lipid soluble hormone
diffuses out of secretory cell, into bloodstream and met by transport protein, then diffuses into target cell and then binds to an intracellular signal receptor
all organs involved with the human endocrine system head to feet
pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid glands, parathyroid glands, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, ovary/testes
where are the parathyroid glands located relative to thyroid
important in long distance signaling, one of many types of secreted chemicals that are formed in specialized cells and travel through body fluids to target cells
a DUCTLESS gland that secretes hormones directly into the interstitial fluid, from which they diffuse into the bloodstream
endocrine gland
an extension of the hypothalamus composed of nervous tissue that secretes oxytocin and ADH made in hypothalamus; temp storage
posterior pituitary = neurohypophysis
a hormone that is produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary and has direct and tropic effects on a wide variety of tissues
growth hormone
hormone secreted by beta cells that lower blood glucose levels; promotes uptake of glucose by most body cells
a small gland on the dorsal surface of the vertebrate forebrain that secretes the hormone melatonin
pineal gland
an endocrine gland located on the ventral surface of trachea that secretes what?
thyroid gland
-T3, T4, calcitonin
one of four small endocrine glands embedded in the surface of the thyroid gland, that secrete what?
parathyroid gland,
parathyroid hormone
one of two endocrine glands located adjacent to kidneys in mammals; deal with stress
adrenal glands
the ventral part of the vertebrate forebrain; functions in maintaining homeostasis; releasing factors that regulate the anterior pituitary
a portion of the pituitary with NONNEURAL TISSUE; consists of endocrine cells that synthesize and secrete several hormones
anterior pituitary
a gland with exocrine and endocrine tissues; endocrine = insulin, glucagon
a hormone secreted by alpha cells that raises blood glucose level. promotes glycogen breakdown and release of glucose by liver
any hormone that stimulates the development of female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics
any steroid with progesterone (prepares uterus for pregnancy) like activity
inability to maintain glucose homeostasis
hormone that stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
adrenocorticotropic hormone