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18 Cards in this Set

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natural selection
the process by which individuals with certain heritable traits tend to produce more offspring than do individuals withou those traits, resulting in a change in the genetic makeup of the population
Age of the Universe
12 to 15 billion years old
cosmic microwave background (left over heat)
expanding universe- galaxies are moving away
abundance of H and He
Age of the Earth
4.5 billion years old
Stages:
1.Accretion
2.Differentiation into core/mantel/crust
3.Loss of primary atmosphere(due to solar wind blast)
4.Formation of secondary atmosphere(outgassing of lighter elements and water)
5.Formation of moon
6.Formation of stable crust, first sedimentary rocks
7. Formation of continental mass (Pangea)
8. continues to be transformed by geological, biological and cosmological forces
Early Earth (conditions)
a. Early impacts (comets) drop off by 3.8 billion years ago
b. sun cooler (1/3 luminosity)
c. more UV (no ozone)
d. hotter earth's surface (radiogenic, thermal)
e. more CO2 (green house effect)
Minimal cell
1. a semipermiable boundary to seperate inside from outside (phospholipid bilayer)
2.energy generation (light/chemical,inorganic/organic)
3.manufacturing(take raw materials to make new 'cell'):nucleic acids, lipids, carbs, amino acids
4.reproducible blue print (hereditary material)
microfossils
organic remains of microbes
catastrophism
the Earth's features were the result of sudden, violent, and dramatic changes, interspersed by periods of stability
progressionism
'special creation', life created in more advance form after catastrophy
immutability of species
fixity of species- species dont change
Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
'Principals of Geology'
1.the earth is continuously in motion
2.the earth is extremely old
3.that raising and falling land masses explained the earth's geology, rahter than changes in sea levels
4.uniformitarianism- Earth's progresses are unifrom throughout time
Baron Cuvier (1769-1832)
fossils, the study of paleontology
William 'Strata' Smith (1769-1839)
distinctive fossils in rock strata of specific geological period
James Hutton (1726-1797)
historical geology (time boundless without end)
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
transmutation of species 1809 'Philosophie Zoologique': organisms 'evolved' didn't go extinct, just changed, acquired traits, progressive evolution ('ladder')
Robert Chambers (1802-1871)
cosmic and organic evolution 'The Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation' 1844
Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)
1855- "On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species"
1858- "On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type'
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
coined the phrase 'survival of the fittest' in his 'principals of biology
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
a. reproductive ability and limited resources
b. struggle for existence and heritable variations
c.natural selection and environmental change
d. descent with modification (evolution)