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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Protostomes that have their bodies with a series of compartments with repeated structures exhibit ______
Arthropods have a _____ that provides space for internal organs and fluid circulation
The mollusk body plan is based upon three major components:
Foot- large muscle located at the base that is used for movement
Visceral Mass- region that contains most of the main internal organs and external gill
Mantle- tissue layer that covers visceral mass and can secrete a shell made of calcium carbonate
When did all of the protostome phyla appear in the history of animal evolution?
515 million years ago
When was the extinction of trilobites (marine arthropod)?
250million years ago
When did insect first appear?
400 million years ago
Name three major parts of the arthropod body plan
jointed limbs, exoskeleton, segmented body
Protostomes diverged into what two major subgroups?
Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa
Name four evolutionary innovations that allowed protostomes to move in unique ways
Jointed limbs- allowed swimming and runnning
Wings- allowed flight
Muscular Foot- allowed mollusks to glide across surfaces
Mantle- allows jet propulsion
How do protostomes reproduce asexually?
By parthenogenesis- production of unfertilized eggs that develop into offspring
What are two distinctive morphological traits of Lophotrochozoans?
1-a feeding structure called a lophophore
2-a type of larvae called a trochophore
What are characteristics of Phylum Rotifera
Rotifers have a corona of cilia at their anterior that is used for suspension feeding
Give the three examples of animals in Phylum Platyhelminthes
1-Flatworms (free living)
2-Tapeworms (endoparasitic)
3-Flukes (endo or ectoparasitic)
Give characteristics and examples of Phylum Annelida
Segmented worms
*segmented body plan; have a coelom that functions as hydrostatic skeleton
Includes: Polychaetes, Oligochaetes(earthworms) and Leeches
Name the four groups of Phylum Mollusca and examples of each
Bivalvia(clams, mussels, scallops)
Gastropoda(snails, nudibranchs)
Cephalopoda(squid, nautilus, octopus)
What group is the most species-rich and morphologically diverse group in the Lophotrochozoa
What mollusk has eight calcium carbonate plates along their dorsal side?
What mollusk group has well-developed head and foot that is modified to form long tentacles? Most also have large brains and eyes with sophisticated lenses or use jet propulsion. most have some type of bony skeleton(internal/external)
What is the primary characteristic of Ecdysozoans?
All members of this lineage grow by molting- shedding of the exoskeleton or external covering(cuticle)
What phylums are grouped into Lophotrochozoa?
Rotifera, Platyminthes, Annelida, Mollusca
What phylums are grouped into Ecdysozoa?
Nematoda, Onychophora, Tardigrada, Arthropoda
Give characteristics/examples of the Phylum Nematoda
*unsegmented worms with a pseudocoelom with a tube-within-a-tube body plan
*no appendages and many are common parasites of humans
What are the characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda and what are its four groups?
*segmented bodies, exoskeletons, jointed appendages
*body has distinct head and trunk regions
*most species have compound eyes and antennae
Groups: Myriapods, Chelicerata, Insecta, Crustaceans
Give characteristics/examples of the Arthropod group Myriapods
(Millipedes, Centipedes)
*simple body has a series of short segments, each with one or two pairs of legs
Give characteristics/examples of the Arthropod group Chelicerata
(Spiders, ticks, mites, horseshoe crabs, daddy longlegs, scorpions)
*includes the arachnid group; most are terrestrial
*named for appendages near the mouth called chelicerae
*have simple eyes and lack antennae
Give characteristics/examples of the Arthropod group Insecta
*have 3 body regions:head, thorax, abdomen and 3 pairs of legs on the ventral side of thorax
*most have two pairs of wings on the dorsal side of thorax
Give characteristics/examples of the Arthropod group Crustaceans
(Shrimp, Lobster, Crabs, Barnacles, Isopods, Copepods)
*have segmented body divided into the cephalothorax adn abdoment
*many have a carapace- a platelike section of their exoskeleton that covers and protects the cephalothorax and mouthparts called mandibles