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25 Cards in this Set

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Fungi that make their living by digesting dead plant material
Saprophytes
Parasitic fungi in humans cause...
athletes foot, vaginitis, diaper rash, ringworm, pneumonia, and thrush
Two growth forms of fungi
single-celled (yeasts) and multicellular filamentous forms (mycelia)
The filaments that make up a mycelium are called...
Hyphae
Major Groups of fungi based on reproductive structures
Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, Ascomycota
Live primarily in water; make swimming spores and gametes with flagella
Chytridiomycota
Hyphae yoke together to form zygotes during mating; cells frin the yoked hyphae fuse to form a spore-producing structure called a zygosporangium
Zygomycota
(Club fungi) Have basidia that form at the ends of a hyphae and produce spores; this group produces reproductive structures such as mushrooms, bracket fungi and puffballs
Basidiomycota
(Sac fungi) produce cup-shaped reproductive structures; the tips of hyphae inside the structures produce sac-like cells called asci that generate spores
Ascomycota
most basal group of fungi
chytrids
How are fungi more closely related to animals than to land plants?
most animals and fungi synthesize tough structural material called chitin; flagella in chytrid spores and gametes are very similar to flagella in animals
Fungi are most closely related to what group?
Microsporidians- they are single celled parasites; cause disease in humans with AIDS, bees, silkworms
Kind of fungi that form a dense network of hyphae around roots but do not enter the root cell; provide nitrogen and phosphate ions to the host plant and recieve sugars in return; most are basidiomycetes
Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF)
Kind of fungi that grow into the cells of root tissue and directly contact the plasma membrane of the plant cell; provide phosphorus to the plants but they do not provide nitrogen; are zygomycetes, extremely common and ancient
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)
Fungi and a few bacterial species are the only organism that can digest what completely?
Wood
What is extracellular digestion? and why do fungi use this?
Fungi secrete enzymes for digestion that takes place outside of the fungus. this is used bc only sugars, amino acids and other small molecules can enter the cytoplasm of the fungi
Fungal group that can degrade lignin completely to carbon dioxide, as well as digest cellulose
Basidiomycetes
What is the reaction of a fungus that runs out of food?
Mycelia respond by making spores which are dispersed by wind or animals, to hopefully go to where food is abundant
What is it called when the cytoplasms of two individuals fuse?
Plasmogamy
What is it called when the nuclei of two individuals fuse?
Karyogamy
Name the state the mycelium becomes when the two nuclei remain independent
heterokaryotic
About 75% of all known fungi belong to this group of fungi
Ascomycota
Sub-group of ascomycetes that grow in association with cynobacteria or green algae form what?
lichens
Non-lichen forming ascomycetes are called cup fungi bc of their cup or saucer-shaped reproductive structure called what?
ascocarp
What fungal groups have branches within them? (are paraphyletic)
Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota