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32 Cards in this Set

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phylogeny
the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, and it is usually summarized and depicted in a phylogenetic tree
phylogenetic tree
shows ancestor-descendant relationships among populations or species
branch
represent population through time
node
a fork where branches diverge
tip
terminal node, tree's endpoint
polytomy
node has multiple branches (possibly from adaptive radiation)
taxon
named group of organisms
sister taxon
group occupying adjacent branch
root
base of tree
outgroup
a related taxa that represents root - as a reference
monophyletic
tree with single ancestor
clade
a group with a single common ancestor
phenetic approach
tree constructed by computing statistics
distance matrix
average base changes in a DNA sequence between two populations
cladistic approach
tree constructed using shared characteristics
synaptomorphy
a shared characteristic
parsimony
contruct tree bracnes with least number of changes
compression
organics preserved, pressed
impression
only imprint remains
cast and mold
organism leaves a mold which is later filled in with minteral (cast)
silicification (petrification)
dissolved minerals gradually infiltrate the interior of the cells and harden into stone making it permineralized
Four geologic eras
Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
Precambrian
Hadean, Archaean, Proterozoic

included the origin of life, photosynthesis and oxygen in the atmosphere
Paleozoic
Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian

included the origin and early diversification of animals, land plants and fungi
Mesozoic
Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous

age of reptiles
Cenozoic
Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene

age of mammals
molecular clock
genes evolve at a 'constant' rate
Cambrian explosion
a period of time at the start of the Cambrian period that had rapid diversification of animals
Doushantuo
fossils during the cambrian explosion that were microscopic
Ediacara
fossils during the cambrian explosion that were of small, soft bodied animals
Burgess Shale
fossils during the cambrian explosion that were of diverse, large animals with hard parts
mass extinctions
refers to the rapid extinction of a large number of lineages scattered throughout the tree of life

430, 350, 240, 200, 60 million years ago were the big 5 extinctions