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24 Cards in this Set

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Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium equation
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
null hypothesis
states that your experiment treatment will have no effect (that your main hypothesis is false)
alleles
copies of the same gene
gene pool
total number of alleles in a given population (provided that they can all interbreed)
natural selection
increases frequency of certain alleles
genetic drift
causes allele frequencies to change randomly
gene flow
immigration and emigration
mutation
modification of existing alleles
horizontal gene transfer
acquisition of new alleles through heterologous recombination; *gene from another organism of the same species gets swapped
symbiosis
acquisition of new alleles from different species
directional selection
allele frequencies are changed in the direction of one of the extremes
stabilizing selection
the average is selected and there is a reduction in variation of a trait
disruptive selection
increases the amount of variation in a trait so both extremes are selected and the average is selected against
sexual selection
occurs when individuals within a population differ in their ability to attract mates
sexual dimorphism
any trait that differs between males and females
female choice
female chooses mate
male-male competition
males compete for mate often resulting in mating rituals
inbreeding
mating between relatives
founder effect
a small group establishes a new population. the allele frequencies are different than the source population
population bottleneck
results when a population is decimated possibly by a catastrophe. the surviving population has a different allele frequency
conjugation
DNA is exchanged between unicellular individuals; occurs in bacteria, archea and some protists
transduction
conversion of info from mode to another
transformation
incorperation of DNA obtained from the environment into the genomne
genetic variation
# and frequency of alleles