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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ocean zones, lowest to highest
benthic, pelagic, intertidal
mountain zones, lowest to highest
decreasing temp with increase in altitude:

tropical forest, temperate forest, subarctic taiga, arctic tundra
base unit of matter

cannot be split without losing all characteristics
a common model of atoms
Bohr's model
Which subatomic particle never changes in number?
atomic mass
the # of protons + the # of neutrons
atomic #
# protons
neutral charge
if protons = electrons
atom with nonaverage amount of neutrons
When electrons get far enough away, outer electrons are lost or added, making atom unstable.
octet rule
Most stable atoms have 8 electrons in outer ring.
ionic bonds

positive and negative charged ions attract
nonmetal-metal bonds
usually ionic
metal-metal bonds
usually covalent
usually covalent
covalent bonds
shared bonds
organic compounds
have carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Carbon: Hydrogen: Oxygen at 1:2:1 ratio

~short term energy
~structural componenets (e.g. cellulose)
examples of carbs
~monosaccharides: glucose (C6H12O6), fructose
~disaccharides: sucrose (C12H22O11)
~glycogen: chains of glucose
~C, H, O not at 1:2:1 ratio
~includes fats, steroids, waxes, oils
~long term energy
~provides insulation
~protective layers
~transfers nutrients
examples of lipids
~glycerol: chain of C w/ fatty acides and H attached
~contain C, H, O, N
~base unit is amino acid
~structural: muscle components, exoskeleton
~enzymes: speed up reaction, help put together or break apart molecules
protein shapes
~determine what molecules will fit in enzymes
~primary: straight chain of amino acids
~2nd: alpha helix or beta pleat
~3rd: globular (helix folds in on itself)
~4th: 2 globulars bonded
nucleic acids
~made up of C, H, O, N, P
~strands of nucleotides
~determine characteristics, heredity, controls cell metabolism
dehydration synthesis
building up compounds, losing water in the process
splitting molecules, gaining water in the process
polyunsaturated fats
if double/triple bonds show up on fatty acid chains on lipids
saturated fats
single bonds only
unraveling of protein molecule due to heat or pH
process of enzyme action
1. molecules fit in active site
2. transition state
3. end product (molecule reaction)
quarternary protein, carries O in human blood
hydrogen bonds
~very weak
~can only take place between H-N, H-F, and H-O
properties of water
~universal solvent
~can bend
~cohesive (can stick to itself)
~adhesive (will stick to foreign materials)
~high specific heat (takes a lot of energy to heat)
~ionizes into H and OH ions
Galileo Galilei
Early 1600's
used 2 glass lenses to magnify the stars and was able to magnify small organisms
Robert Hooke
Mid 1600's
coined the phrase "cell" as he looked through simple compound microscope, observing cork
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Late 1600's
given credit for developing first microscope
Matthew Schleiden
botanist who states the functional and organizational unit of a plant is the cell
Theodore Schwann
zoologist states the functional and organizational unit of an animal is the cell
Rudolf Virchow
physiologist studies reproduction of cell and concludes that all cells come from preexisting cells (reproduction)
light microscope
~some up to 1000x
~When light hits air, it bends (refracts.)
transmission electron microscope
~can magnify .5 nm, magnification=10,000x
~doesn't use glass, light passes through vacuum
scanning electron microscope
~specimen not sliced, dipped in reflective microscope
~3 nm
scanning tunneling electron microscope
~tunnels into specimen to look at the inside
~cell with true nucleus
~contains many organelles
bilipid layer
~cell membrane, double semi-permeable layer (some things can pass through)
~regulates substances in and out
protoplasm, cytoplasm, cytosol
~cell fluid
~70-90% water
~between bilipid layer and nucleus
~where cell reactions take place
~inside cell
~made up of microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments
~gives shape, support, motility (flagella, cilia)
~assists in moving organelles around cell
~only in animals
~9+2 arrangement of microtubules and microfilaments
~function in cell division
~generates energy
~has own DNA (comes from maternal source only)
~can reproduce by itself
~has double membrane (inner membrane Cristae is folded)
~generates ATP
endoplasmic reticulum
~smooth and rough
~connected to nucleus
~extends throughout cell
~transports proteins and lipids
~no membrane
~small organelles attached to ER or independent
~composed of two subunits of rRNA
~site of protein synthesis
Golgi bodies
~modify polypeptide chains
~package and ship proteins and lipids for secretion
~act as vesicles
~small bubble of products being transported to exit the cell for secretion
~breakdown of fatty acids and amino acids release hydrogen peroxide, commonly found in liver and kidney cells
vesicle that mainly contains water, esp. in plants
vesicle that contains enzymes for breakdown of cell parts, "vacuum cleanerish"
vesicles that contain enzymes for breakdown of fatty acids and amino acids
~near center of cell
~has own double membrane with pores
~controls heredity and all activities in cell with DNA
~organelle containing pigments
~has double membrane
~contains chlorophyll used for photosynthesis
~contains grana and stroma
~thylakoids have chlorophyll
cell wall
~outside cell membrane
~controls volume of liquid
~helps to propel cell
~extention of cytoskeleton w/ cell membrane
~gives cell motility
~9+2 arrangement
~hair-like projections around cell
~slower movement than flagella
gap junction
~protein strands
~connects cells to each other by way of "gaps" so that cytoplasm flows between
tight junction
~stops water-soluble material from passing through
~prevents leaks
adhering junction
joins cells that are subject to stretching
components of bilipid layer that contribute to semi-permeability
phospholipids, hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic, proteins and their roles, glyco chains, cholesterol
passive transport
~movement of molecules from [high] to [low]
~passes through semi-permeable membrane
types of passive transport
diffusion: molecular bombardment

osmosis: water flows to dilute the [high] of salts
active transport
~movement of molecules from [low] to [high]
~energy needed
types of active transport
~endocytosis: phagocytosis (cell "eats" solid material"), phinocytosis (membrane folds in on self and creates vesicle)
~sodium/potassium pump
osmotic pressure
pressure caused by movement of water
shriveling because of hypertonic-ness
cell membrane shrinnks inside cell wall
speed of light =
wavelength x frequency

3 x 10 to the 8th power m/s
How does light travel?
in photons and wavelengths
chemeosmotic phosphorylation
transfer of ions H+/e- across the membrane to produce enrgy
heat releasing reaction
heat absorbing reaction that releases more ATP than exergonic
is a gain of e- or H+
gain of 02
period of cell growth before DNA is duplicated (begins in daughter cells)
period whenm the DNA is replicated (when chromosomes are duplicated)
period after DNA is replicated; cell prepares for division
~chromosomes condense
~microtubules assemble and move one of the two pairs of centrioles to opposite ends of the cell
~nuclear envelope begins to break up
transition to metaphase
~microtubules penetrate nuclear region and form a bipolar spindle apparatus
~microtubules attach to the two sister chromatids of ea. chromosome
~chromosomes line up at spindle equater, in most tightly condensed form
~attatchments between two sister chromatids of ea. chromosome break
~2 separate chromosomes formed, move to opposite spindle poles
~chromosomes (in 2 separate clusters) decondense
~new nuclear envelope formed
mechanisms that stop cell division
~cell death (cytocide)
~telomeres (help with start also)
3 polar bodies + 1 ovum
prophase I
~homologous pairs of chromosomes pair up (synapsis) as a tetrad
~pairs condense around each other and cross over, producing chimera (gene region taken from other chromosome)
metaphase I
homologues line of in center of cell
anaphase I
homologous pairs spearate
Law of Dominance
one charactersistic masks the other
Law of Segregation
Characteristic particles separate during meiosis.
Law of Independent Assortment
Characteristics can recombine randomly.
Incomplete Dominance
~neither allele is dominant over the other
~blend into new expression
~as in sickle cell anemia, where both alleles express independent characteristics
Multiple Alleles
~as in blood types in which a gene has more than two alleles
Sex-Linked Characteristics
linked through the genders, XX and XY
crossing over % formula
(# varients/ total offspring)100
polygenic inheritance
continuous variation in population controlled by more than one gene
will occur when one gene is a homozygous recessive, condition blocks the expression of another
multiple traits affected by one gene