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87 Cards in this Set

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Resolution
ability of a microscope to see an image clearly
Diaphragm
regulates amount of light coming through the stage
Autotroph
organism that can make its own food
Heterotroph
organism that feeds upon others for nutrition
Ribosome
cell organelle where protein synthesis occurs
Golgi apparatus
organelle that packages cell proteins
Centriole
organelle of animal cell that helps pull chromosomes apart in mitosis
Chloroplast
organelle where photosynthesis occurs in plant cells
Endoplasmic reticulum
transportation system of the cell
Chlorophyll
green pigment that can absorb the energy of the sun
Nucleolus
organelle in the nucleus that makes RNA
Nucleus
cell organelle that controls the activities of the cell
Stroma
thick fluid in the chloroplast
Thylakoid
disklike structure that contains chlorophyll in the chloroplast
Granum
stack of thylakoids
Cristae
folds in the mitochondrion
Mitochondrion
cell organelle that acts as a powerhouse for the cell
Eukaryotic
cell with a true nucleus and membrane-bounded organelles
Prokaryotic
primitive cell lacking a nucleus and membrane-bounded organelles
Fermentation
cell respiration that does not use oxygen and produces CO2 and alcohol
Lactic acid
chemical causing muscle soreness when oxygen is not available
Mitosis
cell division process that produces two daughter cells
Meiosis
cell division that produces sex cells
Active transport
process requiring energy that moves materials in and out of cells
Exocytosis
process by which large molecules are excreted from a cell
Endocytosis
process by which large molecules are taken into a cell
Osmosis
movement of water through a membrane from high to low concentration
Diffusion
movement of molecules from areas of high to low concentration
Facilitated diffusion
movement of molecules through channels in the cell membrane
Haploid number
half the normal number of chromosomes found in sex cells
Diploid number
the normal number of chromosomes found in body cells
Amino acids
building blocks of proteins
Substrate
substance that an enzyme reacts with
Enzyme
protein that speeds up a chemical reaction without it being used up
pH
scale used to measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance
Atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element
Atomic mass
number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Element
pure substance that cannot be broken down chemically into a simpler substance
Biogenesis
idea that life can only arise from preexisting life
Spontaneous generation
idea that life can come from non-living things
Nucleotide
building block of nucleic acids
Covalent bond
bond in which electrons are shared
Ionic bond
bond formed when two ions are attracted
Mutation
change in a gene or DNA
Karyotype
representation of the chromosomes of a species
Replication
process in which DNA makes a copy of itself
Transcription
process by which DNA is copied by messenger RNA
Translation
process in which tRNA decodes mRNA
Codon
three base sequence of mRNA
Anticodon
three base sequence of tRNA
Species
group of organisms that breed in nature and produce fertile offspring
Natural selection
process by which nature chooses those individuals that best adapted to survive and reproduce
Sex-linked trait
trait whose genes are found on the X chromosome
Sex-influenced trait
trait that expresses itself differently in males and females
Heterozygous
having two different alleles
Homozygous
having two alles that are the same
Incomplete dominance
blending of two traits to produce a third trait
Codominance
inheritance in which both traits are expressed
Genotype
type of genes found on chromososmes
Phenotype
physical trait as a result of inherited genes
Adaptation
trait that helps an organism survive
Allele
alternate form of a gene
Divergent evolution
process in which an ancestor gives rise to two or more species
Convergent evolution
process by which unrelated organisms become more alike by sharing a common habitat
Who made the first microscope?
Van Leewenhoek
Who proposed that the ancient atmosphere contained the raw materials to produce the first primitive life?
Oparin
Who named the cell?
Hooke
Who is considered the “father of genetics”?
Darwin
What are 5 characteristics of living things?
Made of cells, Use energy constantly, React to their environment, capable of growth, capable of reproduction, have a life span
What are the parts of the cell cycle?
Interphase, mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase), cytokinesis
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Where does the process occur? chloroplast
What is the equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + 38 ATP Where does most of the process occur? Cytoplasm and mitochondrion
Why are photosynthesis and cellular respiration considered to be complementary processes?
The raw materials of one process are the end products of the other. While the processes chemically are different, they help maintain the balance of oxygen and CO2 on Earth
The breakdown of glucose aerobically produces how many ATP molecules?
38
What are 3 reasons cell divide periodically?
Growth, repair, reproduction in unicellular organisms
What is the cell division that produces normal body cells called
mitosis
how many cells are produced?
2
What is the chromosome number of the daughter cells?
Diploid number (same as the parent cell)
What type of cell division that produces sex cells (gametes)? How many cells are produced?
meiosis, 4
What are 3 properties of water?
Cohesion, capillarity, polarity, high specific heat
How many Calories are produced from the breakdown of 1 gram of lipid? carbs? proteins?
9
& 4, 4
During which stage of mitosis does the nuclear membrane breakdown and chromosomes become visible? prophase Do chromosomes line up at the cell’s equator?
prophase, metaphase
Do chromosomes pull toward opposite sides of the cell?
anaphase
Do daughter cells form?
telophase
What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?
Nitrogen base, phosphate, sugar
What are 3 differences between DNA and RNA?
DNA uses deoxyribose as its sugar, RNA uses ribose, DNA is a double strand, RNA is a single strand, DNA uses thymine as one of its nitrogen bases, RNA uses Uracil instead
What are 4 evidences that evolution has occurred
Fossils, embryo similarity, Genetic similarity, presence of homologous and analogous organs, and vestigial organs