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56 Cards in this Set

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decomposers, assisting in the essential task of recycling nutrients in ecosystems
fungi
those who study fungi
mycologist
Food sources are digested externally, then absorbed into their cells.
absorptive nutrition
group or mass of hyphae
mycelium
filamentous vegetative structures
hyphae
an intimate association (symbiosis) between plant roots and fungal hyphae
mycorrhizae
fusion of cell membranes
plasmogamy
a mycelium with two genetically distinct nuclei
dikaryon
the two haploid nuclei fuse to form a highly transient diploid state
karyogamy
mostly aquatic, which is why they are often called "water fungi.
Phylum Chytridiomycota
has a thick wall that will allow it to survive inhospitable conditions (e.g., freezing temperatures, lack of moisture).
zygosporangium
a common bread mold
Zygomycota
ranges morphologically from unicellular yeasts to complex cup fungi.
ascomycetes
is the production of four to eight sexual spores in a microscopic sac-like cell called an ascus
phylum Ascomycota
contains fungi which are generally referred to as gilled fungi or gilled mushrooms; club fungi
Phylum Basidiomycota
animals are these three things
motile, heterotrophic, and multicellular.
how do animals store food?
Animals are ingestive heterotrophs (i.e., they ingest nutrients). Unlike plants, who store their food as starch, animals store their food as glycogen
when did animals come about?
700 million years ago
first dichotomous branch point of the phylogenetic tree
tissue organization: Parazoans lack true tissues, whereas eumetazoans have true tissues
second dichotomous branch point of the phylogenetic tree of Kingdom Animalia
separates the eumetazoans with radial symmetry (the radiata) from those with bilateral symmetry (the bilateria)
triplo vs diplo, where is the split?
bilatera are triploblastic, where radiata are diploblastic
third major bifurcation of the phylogenetic tree of Kingdom Animalia
coelomates vs acoelomates
last major branch point of the phylogenetic tree of Kingdom Animalia
protostomes vs deuterostomes
spiral and determinate cell growth
prostomes
radial and indeterminate cell growth
deuterostomes
the capability of certain embryonic cells to form any type of adult cell.
Totipotency
The ________ is a clear pouch of cells created by the invagination during gastrulation, and the _________ is the opening to the pouch
archenteron, blastopore
The______is the first cavity that forms (once again, don't confuse "cavity" with "gut"). The _______ is the second cavity that forms; the archenteron is the cavity that will give rise to the gut in coelomates.
blastocoel /archenteron
The ___ are animals that lack true tissues.
parazoa
cnidaria have two general body plans:
the polyp and the medusa. The polyp form is sessile, anchored to a substrate. The medusa form is motile.
Cnidae that sting are called
nematocysts
includes aceolomates only, are flatworms
Phylum Platyhelminthes includes aceolomates only.
Cnidarians and flatworms both have
a gut with a single opening
The cells in a sponge that are used to trap food particles from circulating water are the
choanocytes
sea anemone brain is
nonexistant
pseudocoelomates that belong to the phylum Nematoda. This extremely diverse phylum includes some highly beneficial soil worms, as well as, some notorious pests and parasites.
ROUNDworms
includes snails, slugs, sea slugs, and nudibranchs.
Class Gastropoda (meaning "stomach foot")
___includes mussels, oysters, and clams.
Class Bivalvia. Bivalves have a reduced head and two hinged shells connected by strong adductor muscles.
have a head surrounded by tentacles, which can be used for locomotion and grasping prey. The shells (also called pens) of squid and cuttlefish are reduced and internal.
Cephalopods
mollusk body plan consists of a
muscular foot, a visceral mass, and a mantle. The foot is used for movement (especially in the gastropods) or as an anchor (as observed in chitons). The visceral mass houses most of the internal organs (e.g., the stomach, gonads, and heart). The mantle is the tissue layer that covers the visceral mass.
(a rasping structure that is used to scrape food particles from hard surfaces)
radula
It is easy to detect segmentation in earthworms. The segments are physically separated internally by thin sheets of mesoderm-derived tissue, termed
septa
read me!
Your recent lab exercise covered many of the main anatomical features of the earthworm. Note how the longitudinal blood vessels, nerve cords, and digestive tract all run the length of the body, whereas the pumping vessels (metanephridia) and ganglia are all arranged in segments
Some _______ (e.g., slugs) are terrestrial and do not have a shell.
gastropods
roundworms belong to the phylum:
nematoda
A _____ _________is found in pseudocoelomates and some coelomates, including annelids, but not in insects.
hydrostatic skeleton
subphyla of antropods, (e.g., spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites)
chelicerates
subphyla of anthropods, are best distinguished by their claw-like feeding appendages
arachnids
This subgroup contains the majority of arthropod species, including Class Insecta.
uniramians
Members of which of the following phyla are most closely related to vertebrates?
Echinoderms are coelomates and deuterostomes. This group of animals is classified in the phylum that branches closest to the vertebrates.
what phylum has greatest diversity of animals?
arthropod
means unbranched
uniramous
describes when mature adults retain characteristics that were larval (juvenile) in their ancestors.
paedomorphosis
The use of existing structures for new and novel purposes is called
exaptation.
mammals that actually lay eggs and lack nipples.
monotremes,
The fossil record indicates that these characters arose in this order for mammals. (amniotic egg, hair, jaws, legs, vertebrae)
vertebrae, jaws, legs, amniotic egg, hair