Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mars Twin Rover Expedition has discovered Martian rocks with __________ layers that can only be formed in the presence of ____________.
sedimentary, water
Europa is one of the four moons of ___________ discovered by __________ in 1610.
Jupiter, Galileo
Signs of microorganisms were revealed in a sub-glacial lake, known as ___________ in the ____________.
Lake Vostok, Antarctica
The Milky Way Galaxy was formed 13.6 __________ years ago and has 200 __________ stars.
billion, billion
The Universe was born 13.7 ___________ years ago and organized into 10 _________ galaxies which form clusters and superclusters.
billion, billion
The satellite known as _________ was launched in 2001 to survey the cosmic ___________ background radiation.
W-MAP, microwave
The results of the W-MAP survey have provided a map to determine the age of the _________ to be ______ billion years.
universe, 13.7
The universe expanded a trillion fold in a process known as __________ before forming the stable ____________ atoms.
inflation, hydrogen
Stars are composed mostly of ___________, and they obtain their energy to glow by the fusion of _________ atoms to form helium.
hydrogen, hydrogen
Our sun is composed of _______% hydrogen and ________% helium.
70, 30
Nuclean fusion of a star stops when it accumulates too much _________. It dies by initiating a ___________ explosion.
iron, super nova
All the elements found in the __________ are formed in the __________.
Periodic Table, stars
The endangered species status of red wolf was once doubtful, because the red wolf was not considered as a species; instead it was thought to be a hybrid between the _________ and the ____________.
grey wolf, coyote
The common biological definition proposed by Ernst Mayr states: Groups of actually or potentially _________ natural populations which are ________ isolated from other such groups.
interbreeding, reproductively
The __________ definition was used by Linnaeus in his classification system that is based off the concept of ____________ of species.
typological species, fixative
The four species definitions used in biological classification are: ___________, _____________, ___________, and ___________.
typological species definition, morphological species definition, ecological species definition, biological species definition
The challenges in defining species include:
modes of reproduction, phenotypic variations, different types of organisms, ecological niches, fossils of extinct organisms
Two most important considerations of the pluralistic species definition are to achieve _______ and _________.
cohesion, parsimony
The three mechanisms of speciation are: _____________ speciation, _____________ speciation, _____________ speciation.
allopatric, sympatric, parapatric
Speciation is a multi-step process that takes place over many generations. The first step of mutation is when two populations become ____________ isolated from each other. This prevents interbreeding and blocks _____________.
geographically, gene flow
New traits occur through mutation; these traits will assume by the population through _____________ and _____________.
natural selection, genetic drift
There are only two species of orangutans in the world, and they live in the tropical rain forest of _____________ and _____________.
Sumatra, Borneo
The frequent type of speciation is known as _____________ speciation, which is caused by _____________, leading to the interruption of _____________.
allopatric, geographical isolation, gene flow
There are two existing chimpanzees living in the _____________ rain forests, one is the common chimpanzees. the other one is the _____________.
Africa, bonobos
A long lasting _____________ in Zaire 2 million years ago, forced the _____________ from the bonobo's foraging area.
drought, gorillas
Africa was entirely covered by forest _____________ years ago, until a global weather change caused by the formation of the _____________ mountain range.
8 million, Himalayan
Human footprints dated 3.5 million years in age were found in _____________. They were shown to belong to _____________.
Laetoli, Homo afarensis
The three mating barriers are: _____________, _____________, and _____________ barriers.
habitat, behavioral, temporal
The two fertilization barriers are: _____________ and _____________ barriers.
mechanical, gametic
The three hybrid survival barriers are: _____________, _____________, and _____________.
reduced hybrid viability, reduced hybrid fertility, hybrid breakdown
How long ago when this human behavioral first appeared?
Pair bonding _____________ million years ago,
Controlled of fire _____________ million years ago,
Stone tools _____________ million years ago,
Home base _____________ million years ago, Language _____________ years ago,
Bipedalism _____________ million years ago.
1.7, 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, 200,000, 4.0
Homo heidelbergensis split around 250,000 years ago into: _____________ and _____________.
Homo neanderthalensis, Homo sapiens
The first human species who left Africa was _____________ about _____________ years ago.
Homo erectus, 1.8 million
The first human stone tool was a _____________ made by _____________.
hand axe, Homo habilis
At about 145,000 years ago, Africa suffered from a sever _____________, and the ancestors of _____________ nearly became _____________.
drought, modern humans, extinct
Evidence from _____________ suggested that all modern humans are descendents from a small band of humans living in _____________ about _____________ years ago.
molecular data, Africa, 110,000
Neandertal spear points were made from _____________, and they were not designed for _____________.
stone, throwing
Human spear points were made from _____________, and they can be thrown from a great distance with another invention known as the _____________.
antler, spear thrower
Prehistoric arts in the form of beads and carving first appeared in association with _____________ about _____________ ago.
modern humans, 40,000 years
The human brains have 100 _____________ neurons with 100 _____________ connections.
billion, trillion
The Paleolithic hand axes were used for: _____________, _____________, _____________ and _____________.
cutting, digging, knocking off flakes, butchering animals
Human brain is vital in _____________, as it is used as a display of _____________.
courtship, reproductive fitness