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14 Cards in this Set

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Ideal Leaf Area
The ideal area of a leaf occurs where there is the biggest difference in the photosynthetic gains and transpiration loss. The lower the plant fitness, the smaller the leaves.
Wide leaves
When leaves are wide, the center heats up really quickly and will not fall off sides as quickly. Smaller leaves give off heat more quickly
High Light Intensity
-absorption is easy
-water loss is high
-temp high
--> no leaves
Low Light Intensity
-absorption is a problem
-water loss low
-variable temp
--> leaves generally large
How to sustain multiple levels..
vegetation grows in 'multi-layers' and the plants on the bottom layer grow first. how to solve the problem of limited sunlight by overstory
Succession
Directional change in community composition over time. Two theories: succession is sequential OR succession is random

--> often succession occurs in the gaps. sometimes it occurs when entire communities are destroyed.
Disturbances
agricultural
fire (some are fire dependent/sensitive/pyrogenic ex. pine trees rely on fire.)
wind
flooding
animals - animals keep things in early stages of succession
disease/insects - cut vegetation back after succession
Colonization and Establishment
-Areas are colonized when seeds are brought in by wind or animals
-Establishment: facilitation (modify the environment so other things can come in), inhibition (early stages can inhibit succession), and tolerance
Human Evolution
bipedalism and big brain
BMR
Smaller animals have a higher BMR than larger animals. Diet and body size are correlated. humans and sheep have same BMR but human brain much larger .. but humans have much smaller gut
Shannon-Wiener Index
measures species diversity
Species Diversity
-TIME -Regional Maturity - those species that have remained the same over time will have more species
-PRODUCTIVITY - how energy is subdivided
-SPATIAL HETEROGENITY - diversity of spatial areas
-SPECIES INTERACTION - diff #'s depending on niche breath and overlap (tropics have smaller breadths and more overlap)
- PREDATION - keep population reduced so that pop doesn't have to interact among itself
Species Number
The number of species you can have is found at the intersection of immigration and extinction. in high and low stress there is low diversity. when there is intermediate stress however there is high species diversity.
-species number is directly proportional to the area (the larger the area, the more species)
Species Number
have to look at immigration, extinction rate, speciation, turnover, and habitat