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38 Cards in this Set

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why do we need cardiovascular and respiratory systems
b. * glucose + O2 ® CO2 + H2O + ATP
Contraction of the left ventricle serves to:
c. pump O2-rich blood to the capillary beds of the body, except for the lungs
d. pump O2-poor blood from most organs, except lungs, back to the right side of heart
Which of the following carries (or pumps) oxygen-rich blood?
c. * pulmonary vein
Which is NOT a function of the cardiovascular system?
a. * transport ATP to cells
The aortic semilunar valve opens:
when blood pressure in the L ventricle exceeds pressure in the aorta
correct route of blood flow:
vena cava, R atrium, R AV valve, R ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary trunk, lungs, pulmonary vein, L atrium, L AV valve, L ventricle, aortic semilunar valve, aorta
what explains how we maintain the equality of cardiac output (CO) between the L and R ventricles?
the systemic and pulmonary circuits are closed circuits so a change in CO from on the R side will produce a change in venous return and therefore stroke volume on the L side, thereby equalizing CO
What is the function of the papillary muscle and tendinous cords?
prevent the high pressure generated in the ventricles during systole from opening the AV valves into the atria
Where does gas and nutrient exchange occur in the heart?
in capillaries fed by branches of the coronary arteries that perfuse all the cardiac muscle
In the autonomic nervous system:
sympathetic fibers generally release norepinephrine and parasympathetic fibers generally release acetylcholine at target tissues
What is an excitable cell?
cell with voltage-gated ion channels that undergoes rapid changes in membrane permeability to ions leading to action potentials
delay in propagation of the action potential at the AV node is important because:
it allows the atria to contract and eject blood into ventricles before the ventricles contract
Explain why cardiac muscles can beat without external stimulation
actions potentials that stimulate contraction of atrial and ventricular contractile cells are generated by autorhythmic cells in the heart itself
Which factors are important in explaining how we produce an efficient, coordinated heart beat?
a. the spread of action potentials from the SA node to the ventricles is directed by the conducting system of the heart
b. action potentials in ventricular contractile cells spread via gap junctions from the apex of the heart towards the aorta and pulmonary trunk
the best explanation of how cells generate a resting membrane potential that is negative on the inside, relative to outside, of the plasma membrane?
b. Na+ / K+ ATPase uses ATP to generate a concentration gradient across the cell membrane for K+ (and Na+)
c. resting cells are somewhat permeable to K+; since the concentration of K+ is greater inside cells than outside, K+ diffuses out of cells leaving a negative charge on inside of plasma membrane
As Charlene sat on the lawn after her BIO202 exam, her heart rate decreased. How do you explain her decrease in heart rate?
increased acetylcholine release from the vagus nerve terminals decreased the slope of the pacemaker potential in her SA node cells
what event is essential for setting heart rate?
b. * the rate of Na+ influx through funny Na+ channels in the plasma membranes of autorhythmic cells
When are voltage-gated Na+ channels in ventricular cells are open approximately when in this electrocardiogram
during the qrs complex
In the cardiac cycle, during the time roughly corresponding to the interval between qrs and t in an electrocardiogram:
blood pressure in the L ventricle exceeds pressure in the aorta, so the aortic semilunar valves will be open
Total peripheral resistance would be decreased by
an increase in the diameter of numerous arterioles
what is the best example of a scientific hypothesis as we define it in 202
the use of mercury in childhood vaccinations explains the rise of autism
Changing the diameter of arterioles:
a. is regulated to a large degree by sympathetic fibers and local metabolic factors
b. has a huge effect on resistance to blood flow, so that decreasing the diameter by half will increase the resistance to blood flow 16-fold
c. is the principle means of short-term regulation of mean arterial pressure (MAP)
d. regulates the amount of blood flowing to individual tissues with changing demands
Delon started jogging because she was going to be late administering her exam. What physiological changes occurred during this moderate aerobic exercise?
she had increased venous return due, in part, to increased activity of her respiratory and skeletal muscle pumps
What happens physiologically during male sexual arousal leading to penile erection?
b. atypical autonomic fibers release nitric oxide, a gas that causes arterioles in the corpus cavernosum to vasodilate
c. as blood fills the corpus cavernosum, the penile veins are blocked leading to sustained accumulation of blood under high pressure
. Which factor has the greatest influence on cardiac output? Think about it for a moment
heart rate
When listening to heart sounds, one hears a dull "lub" followed by a sharp "dup." What does the "dup" corresponds to in the cardiac cycle:
closing of the semilunar valves
During moderate exercise:
a. an increase in muscle metabolic rate produces local vasodilation of arterioles in the skeletal muscles
b. the rate at which CO2 is removed from actively metabolizing muscle is increased
c. the sympathetic nervous system is activated and epinephrine is released from the adrenal medulla
d. there is a large decrease in the resistance to blood flow into leg muscle capillary beds
Refer to the diagram representing the Frank-Starling law of the heart. What can we say about the axes?
stroke volume is the dependent variable
The Frank-Starling law of the heart as represented on the diagram:
is best represented by the difference in stroke volume between points “w” and “y
Assuming that point “w” represents resting conditions, which best predicts what will happen to stroke volume with moderate-strenuous aerobic exercise (just a qualitative exercise):
stroke volume will increase from “w” to “z” due to an increase in venous return and increased sympathetic activity
Why do you think the Frank-Starling law of the heart is not linear through the range of end-diastolic volumes shown? In other words, why do stroke volumes reach a maximum and then decline? No, we didn’t discuss this in class, but you took BIO 201. Look at the graph, think about what it means (end-diastolic volume could also be called …), and think about muscle
at a certain point the ventricular sarcomeres are so stretched that there is not enough actin-myosin overlap to produce a forceful contraction (length-tension relationship)
Which of the following statements about blood pressure is true:
blood pressure is greater in tiny capillaries than in large veins
Fenestrated capillaries (like those in kidney and small intestine):
are more permeable to fluids and small solutes than continuous capillaries in skeletal muscle
What will likely happen when you first get out of bed and stand up in the morning?
the cardiovascular center of your medulla oblongata will increase the activity of sympathetic fibers innervating your heart and arterioles leading to an increase in MAP
How might the kidneys contribute to the regulation of mean arterial pressure?
in response to increased MAP, the kidneys are likely to increase urine production and thereby decrease blood volume
a. in response to decreased MAP, the kidneys are likely to decrease urine production and conserve water, thereby increase blood volume
What is a major difference between arteries and veins
* large elastic arteries act as pressure reservoirs while large veins act as volume reservoirs
While hiking for a couple of hours on South Mountain in May, with only a liter of water, several things are going on that might influence your mean arterial blood pressure
a. increased muscular exertion will result in increased cardiac output; this will tend to increase MAP
b. increased muscular exertion will lead to CO2 buildup in leg muscles, leading to widespread vasodilation of arterioles in leg muscles; this will tend to decrease MAP
c. dehydration will lead to a decrease in blood volume; this will tend to decrease MAP
d. dehydration will lead to an increase in blood viscosity; this will tend to increase resistance and MAP
Denise and Dennis had an argument on Friday night. Dennis tends to overreact to emotional events, so his blood pressure skyrocketed. After a few minutes his MAP returned to normal. What rapid responses kicked in to save him from having a stroke?
baroreceptors in his aorta and carotid sinus responded to the increased stretch of his arteries and signaled his cardiovascular center increase parasympathetic and decrease sympathetic output