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208 Cards in this Set

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First heterotrophs, seek out food using cilia and flagella, live in water
Freshwater protozoa
Amoeba protozoa that causes malaria
Slime molds
Break things down.
Plasmodial and cellular
Plasmodial slime molds
On wood. Multinucleate, can become moving mass of cells
Cellular slime molds
In soil. Change when nutrient/water supply is lost
Unicellular algae
Produce sugar and provide oxygen.
Include plankton, dinoflagellates, diatoms, green algae
Organisms that drift or swim near surface of ponds, lakes, oceans
Phytoplankton - photosynthesize
Whirling flagellates, marine and freshwater, bioluminescent, produce red tides
Glow when agitated
Red tides
Some are toxic, under right conditions, usually involving pollution, neurotoxin manifests in muscles and clams
Symbiotic dinoflagellates used by coral and giant clams to provide sugar and oxygen to help organisms grow better in nutrient poor tropical water
Marine and freshwater, food reserve is oil, turns extra sugar into oil for buoyancy to keep near surface and light
Dead diatoms
Fossil fuels
Diatomaceous earth
Just shells of diatoms are left, filters water; Bon Ami
Green algae
Protist most closely related to plants, similar chlorophyll. Store energy as oil and starch; produce O2 and use CO2
Multicellular marine algae; no vascular tissue.
Green, red, brown
Green seaweed
Lead to land plants
Brown seaweed
Kelp, make glue-like substances; air bladders keep them up by light
Red seaweed
Calcium carbonate= hard. Lots of biomass
Uses of seaweed
Stabilizers for pudding and ice cream, paint emulsifiers, gels: DNA fingerprints, food: chicken feed Asian soups and sushi
Advantage of being bigger
Less things can eat you
Cell specialization
Some move, some produce food, et.
Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic
Filamentous, cell walls of chitin, decomposers, reproduce by spores
Cells stacked on top of each other
Strong, flexible polysaccharide- water tight. Also in insect exoskeleton
Organisms that release enzymes to break doen food
Mold spores
Most visible fungi, hyphae underground, spores on gills. The part above ground only grow under certain conditions
Mushrooms of high value. Grown in association with tree roots
Commercial fungus. Some edible, some poisonous
Mold grows on rye grain, drug for controlling bleeding in small quantities. In quantity, LSD
Single celled fungus. Bakers and brewers- take in sugar and give off CO2 and ethanol
Yeast infections: immunodeficient. Thrush
One type is source of penecillin that helped us win WWII- kills gangrene. Other is green-blue mold on citrus - color and flavor in cheese
Symbiotic fungi associated with plant roots- increases surface area for water and nutrient uptake, plants give fungus sugar.
Some orchids require native soil containing mycorrhizae to germinate
Parasitic fungi
Wheat rust, corn smut, dutch elm disease, sudden oak death, Ireland potato blight
Athlete's foot, ringworm, valley fever
Mutualistic relationship with algae, environmental indicators, pioneering organisms
Non vascular plants
Small, always near water. Mosses.
Vascular plants (2 types)
Seedless- ferns
With seeds- everything else
Terrestrial adaptations
More light and CO2, less water. Need for roots and shoots.
Lignans, Stomata, Cuticles, Vascular tissue
Made by guard cells. Open and close to let molecules in and out
Waxy, on surface
Vascular tissue
Xyloem (wood; mainly carry water)
Phloem (dissolve nutrients)
Vascular cambium
Layer under bark = only living part of trees
4 Major periods of plant adaptations
1. Protection of gametes
2. Vascular tissues
3. Seeds
4. Flowers
Alternation of generations
Gametes grow a little before fertilization
Require water for fert. Have cuticle, protected embryo. Dominant gametophytes, more than 10,000 species
Lives more than one year
Needs gametophytes to grow
What does photosythesis, gets sporophyte off the ground, flagellate sperm can swim
Ferns (vascular seedless)
Require water for fert. Sporophyte dominant, small gametophyte, most diverse in tropics.
Sori under leaf. ~50 sporangia in each sori; 50 spores in each sporangia
Seed plants
Live in drier and cooler weather, seeds survive winters, lots of vascular tissue, internal fertilization, not dependent on water.
Tallest seed plant
Coastal redwood
Largest seed plant
Giant redwood
Oldest seed plant
Bristle cone pine
Seeds in cones, no flowers. Most evergreens. Waxy needles and cone shape= snow falls off. Make seeds up to 2 yrs after fert.
Wind carries pollen, wings on seeds to get away.
250,000 species. Have flowers and fruit. Feed world and medicines of world.
Sepals, petals, stamens, carpel
Protect bud
Put out pollen grain
Use wind, insects, birds, and bats to carry pollen
Fruit uses animals to transport
Medicines from plants
Quinine (malaria prev)
Taxol (Ovarian cancer drug)
Atropine (pupil dialator)
Digitalis (Heart medicine)
Morphine (pain reliever)
General characteristics of animals
Multicellular, heterotrophic, nutrition through ingestion through oral cavity, sexually reproductive
Trends in animal evolution
Presence of true tissues,
bilateral symmetry,
body cavity,
complete digestive tract
True tissues in animals
Removal of waste, movement, etc.
Body cavity
Where organs develop
Digestive tract
Efficient absorption of nutrients
Radial symmetry
Any slice passing through center divides into two mirror images
Porifera, cnidaria, echinodermata (jellyfish and adult starfish)
Organisms that sit on the bottom of the ocean and wait for prey- hydra
Bilateral symmetry
Only one plane of cut gives mirror images; most animals
Not sessal.
Body cavity (coelom)
Tube-in-tube. Place for organ development; cushions creature.
All animals have either no cavity, a pseudocoelom, or a true body cavity.
Benefits of a body cavity
Acts as a hydroskeleton so muscle can push against it, cushions internal organs, allows organs to grow and move independently
Sponges (porifera)
Simplest animals, mostly marine (but some also f.w.) No muscle or nerve tissue, sessile, filter feeders.
Choanocytes and amoebocytes
Trap bacteria and create currents (filter feeders)
Fibers/structure of sponges (soft or hard), transfer nutrients and oxygen
Jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, radial symmetry, gastrovascular cavity, polyp and medusa stages, first to demonstrate true tissues
Trapping organisms
Trap, sting, and capture prey (cnidarians)
Gastrovascular cavity
Where mouth and anus are the same
Tentacles with stinging cells. Fastest movement in nature, stab prey and paralyze it.
Cnidarian feeding stage
Cnidarian sexual reproduction stage
Flatworms (Platyhelminthes)
Simplest bilateral animals, first to have organs. Highly flattened, parasitic. No body cavity, incomplete digestive tract
Parasitic Flukes and Tapeworms
(Types of flatworms) Most in underdeveloped countries, life cycle involves many hosts, some in snails. Absorb nutrients through body wall = no need for digestive tract.
Roundworms (Nematoda)
Diverse and widespread, free-living and parasitic on plants and animals. Tapered at both ends, complete digestive tract. Pseudocoelom. Needed to grow crops- aerates soil
Snails, slugs, bivalves, squid, octopus. Marine, hard shell. Radula, foot, visceral mass, mantle
Snail and slug mollusks; not marine
Clams, muscles, oysters (mollusks)
Squid and octopus (mollusks) Can be huge and smart
Scrapes and cuts in order to eat
Mollusk foot
Attaches to things, moves
Mollusk visceral mass
Everything except food and shell
Mollusk mantle
Secretes the shell that protects the organism
Annelid worms
Body segmentation. Earthworms, polychaetes, leeches
Annelid segmentation
Flexibility via joints. Some have appendages: bristles - setae
Aerate/ amend soil
Marine annelid
Sucker at each end, one for attachment and one for sucking blood. Used medicinally for increasing blood flow in cut off fingers
Jointed appendages, segmented bodies with exoskeleton. Arachnids, crustaceans, millipedes and centipedes, insects.
Most terrestrial
Spiders, ticks, mites (annelids)
Most aquatic
Crab, lobster, shrimp, barnacles
Rolli polli- terrestrial crustacean
Copepod- most numerous animal on earth
Millipedes and Centipedes
Millipedes: scavengers
Centipedes: Predators
Hardened exoskeleton- molt
Jointed appendages that are paired
Specialized respiratory system
Internal fertilization
Eggs in case or host for protection
Very advanced nervous system
Advantage of metamorphesis
Don't compete with parents for food.
Marine. Adults radial symmetry, larvae bilateral. Starfish. Endoskeleton, Sessile or slow moving. Water vascular system. Eat clams and muscles.
Water vascular system
Water in and out of legs to move
Segmented. Dorsal, hollow nerve. Notochord. Pharyngeal slits. Post-anal tail
3 subphyla: 2 intvertebrate, 1 vertibrate
Intvertibrate chordates
Lancelets, Tunicates
Simplest chordates, notochord persists, shallow marine waters
Larvae show chordate affinity: tadpole like. Adults usually have cellulose covering: tunic. Sea squirts
Vertibrate chordates
Vertebral column, head, endoskeleton (usually bone)
7 classes:
Jawless fish
Jawed fish
Chordate's segments
Flexible, mobile
Chordate's nerve chord
Becomes spinal chord
Chordate's notochord
Becomes part of vertebrae
Jawless fish
Hagfish and lampreys, long and thin, cartilaginous skeletons, no scales. Suck on to side of another fish and suck blood
2 Classes of Jawed fish
Cartilaginous fish
Bony fish
Cartilaginous fish
Fast, accute senses to seek prey. No bones, skeleton is cartilage, hardest part is teeth. Can sense electricity from seals
Sharks, skates, rays
Bony fish
Food for humans, healthy oils. Lungs in a few that lead to amphibians (lobe-finned fish). Swim bladder: buoyancy
Complete metamorphesis, quick in water. Eggs have to be laid in water; no shells or yokes. Lungs and skin to breathe. Environmental Indicators!
Frogs and salamanders
Ectotherms, snakes and lizards, turtles and tortoises, alligators and crocodiles
Terrestrial adaptations of reptiles
Amniotic egg, internal fertilization, larger lungs, thick skin (keratin)
Amniotic egg
Fluid similar to ocean. Provides cushioning and nutrients. Shell and yoke sack -> O2 and CO2 permeable. Soft, leathery shell
Internal fertilization
More efficient, less gametes needed
Water proof protein in skin of reptiles
Use activity to heat (cold blooded). Advantage: only use 10% of energy
Only surviving dinosaur lineage, found everywhere. Evolved feathers, other adaptations for flying
Birds' adaptations for flying
Wings, feathers (keratin), hollow bones, endotherms, airsack, females have one ovary.
All allow birds to be lighter for flight.
Great diversification 65 MYA (extinction of dinosaur), largest animal: blue whale. Endothermic, hair (keratin), mammary glands
3 Major groups of mammals
Monotremes, Marsupials, Placentals (most)
Egg-laying mammals
young born in very immature stage, pouch mammals. Short-lasting placenta; complete development in pouch
Big, long lasting placenta; more time in uterus= more chance for survival
Horses- born to walk
Primates- opposable thumbs, limber arms, depth perception
All members of the same species in an area. Interbreeding. Some isolation from other populations. Size of area is defined by study (best studies look at large numbers within the population)
Distribution of populations
Organisms live only in specific areas and most have limited dist. Area determined by biotic and abiotic factors
Biotic factors
Other species that influence a population's distribution and niche
Abiotic factors
Factors such as weather, geography, and elevation that influence a population's distribution and niche
Three types of distribution
Clumped, random, uniform
Clumped distribution
Most common, due to unequal amounts of resources
Random distribution
Uniform distribution
Interactions among individuals- equal amount of space in between populations.
Growth of populations
Stable populations: size doesn't increase or decrease. birth+immigration = death+emigration
Increase of populations: birth+immigration > death+emigration
Stable populations grow then level off
Exponential growth
No limiting resources, J-shaped. Numbers double in a given period of time
Logistic population growth
Limiting resources exist; S-shaped curve. All populations must eventually level off.
Carrying capacity
Carrying capacity
The population size that a certain environment can maintain; population levels off here.
Density dependent
K-selected. More population, more effect. Equilibrial (elephant), more care of young
Density independent
R-selected. Same number affected in large and small populations.
Opportunistic (flies)
Equilibrial populations
Slow reproduction, long lived
Opportunistic populations
Reproduce fast and prolifically, most energy goes into reproduction, short life span
Natural process: 99% of all living things extinct.
#1 cause: destroying habitat, pollution, shooting.
Competition: novel predators, disease (more prone after drought)
Age structure and population growth
Helps predict future of a population.
Reproductive ages use a lot of resources.
All populations in a habitat.
More species at equator= more water.
Location of deserts
30 deg N and S lat.
Due to way water circulates on earth
Rainshadow effect
Deserts on inland side of mountain range - clouds drop most of the rain on the valley and mountains
Ecological system.
All organisms in an area plus abiotic factors.
Most inclusive level of biological organization.
Community diversity
Species richness: richest= rainforest; most absent= poles
Relative abundance: changes with seasons
Biodiversity: species, geographic, genetic
Visible parts of a community
Prevalent form of autotrophs
Trophic structure and feeding relationships
Prevalent form of autotrophs
Determines main predator type
Stability of communities
Ability to resist change
Ability to return to original species composition if disturbed
Interspecific relations
Competition between species, predation (feeding relationships), symbiosis
WHERE a population lives
Two populations CAN occupy the same habitat
HOW a population lives
Two populations cannot occupy the same niche
Competitive exculsion
One population uses resources more efficiently, gaining slight reproductive advantage
Resource partitioning
Different species using different parts of/ different resources. Ex- roots grow to different depths
Non-competitive exclusion
Result of competition in identical niches
One population becomes locally extinct or one changes and uses a different det of resources
Maintains diversity, coevolution between prey and predator, keystone predators.
Without predation, other species grow and die of starvation
Adaptations for feeding and not being fed upon
Prey: run fast, hide
Predators: fast, ambush
Plants: alkaloids- bitter tasting
Keystone predators
Top predator in a community, maintains species richness
Prevents competitive exclusion of other species
Prey defense, one species mimicks the appearance of another
Batesian, mullerian, camoflauge
Batesian mimicry
A harmless animal mimicks a harmful one. Ex- black and yellow flies
Mullerian mimicry
2 or more harmful animals imitate each other; safety in numbers
Parasitic relationships
Parasites that have been in contact with host for a long time dont harm host; those that are new harm host
Short term changes in the community
Seasonal - provides for less competition
Disturbances in a community
Long term, disaster, ecological succession
Flood, tornado, volcano
Primary succession
Community arises where there is no soil, such as after a volcano or glacier.
Pioneer species move into habitat first
Pioneer species
Moss, lichen, small herbaceous plants.
Resistant to wind and fluctuations in temperature. Trap dust in air to form soil
Secondary succession
When a community is destroyed the the soil remains, such as after a fire or logging
Climax community
A community holding the most diverse range of species it can, such as a pond or bog
In CA, old grove redwoods
Energy flow between trophic levels
Most is lost from system in the form of heat; food chains are energy pyramids
Nutrient cycle, but energy flows
Percent of energy flowing between trophic levels
Eating high or low on the food chain
Most conservative to planet: eat as herbivore/ vegetarian
Chemical cycles in ecosystems
Both biotic and abiotic factors,
each has an abiotic reservior, some elements must be processed by bacteria before plants can absorb them (N)
Carbon cycle
Atmosphere is reservior,
Carbon sink: boreal forest (Russia and Canada)
Greenhouse effect, produces fossil fuels (non renewable)
Nitrogen cycle
In atmosphere, bacteria needed in soil and roots
Phosphorus cycle
In rock, slowest cycle (bone, ATP)
In ocean, massive evaporation, stays in sky 10 days. 23% falls on land as rain, the rest goes back to ocean
Human impacts: areas of introduced species
Agriculture, horticulture, accidental
Introduced species in agriculture
Cattle feed brought in grasses, cattle pack down dirt so plants can't grow, cattle bring in disease.
*No natural predators
Accidental introduction of new species
By dumping aquariums into ponds
Problems of introducing new species
High reproductive rate, no natural predators or diseases.
Local examples of introduced species
Argentine fire ants: kill native birds, Orundu (bamboo like plant), Algae in Lake Tahoe
Human impacts on Carbon cycle
Burning of wood and fossil fuels releases CO2 into atmosphere, less plants to perform photosynthesis
Human impacts on Nitrogen cycle
Fertilizers cause algae blooms, eutrophication (takes O2 out of water, creates dead zones)
Human impacts on Phosphorus cycle
Fertilizers, sewage, pesticides
Human impacts on water cycles
Mainly global warming
Rainfall modified by human activities; population growth
Impacts water cycle, increases runoff (plants hold soil in place), photosynthesis decreases, species diversity changes, weather patterns change
Dissertification- deserts are getting bigger
Biological magnification
Release of toxic chemicals to environment (some are lipidsoulable. Mercury- neurotoxin, PCB- electric transformers)
Non-biodegradable compounds become concentrated up the food chain
Endangered biodiverstiy
.5% land area, greatest concentration of endemic plants.
Humans have altered 90% of planet, mainly in rainforest
Animal behaviors
Instinct v. learned behavior
Animal instinct
Quick actions, sucking in infants, egg rolling, mating drives
Learned behavior
Takes time yet can be modified, associative, imprinting, innovative learning
Reproductive behavior
Recognize opposite sex, attract opposite sex (courtship)
Allocating resources
Dominance hierarchy, territorial behavior, gaining food
Handling seasonal stress
Hibernation, storing food, migration
Social behaviors
Caste system, packs, schooling
Human social behaviors: universal facial expressions
Self protection
Reflexes, prey defenses:
Warning coloration and mimicry, speed, chemical, camouflage
Plant behaviors
Phototropism, gravitropism, thigmotropism, photoperiodism
The ability of a plant to respond to changes it experiences in the daily duration of darkness, relative to light
THe bending of a plant's shoots in response to light. Generally, this capability helps a plant grow toward the sun to get the most available sunlight
The growth of a plant in response to touch. This capability allows tendrils to wrap around other objects, thus helping a plant climb upward towards the light
The bending of a plant's roots or shoots in response to gravity. This capability helps a plant orient roots and shoots properly- roots towards the center of the earth, shoots away from it.