Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/60

Click to flip

60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
G2
cell enlarges; RNA, proteins, other macromolecules made; prepare for mitosis
cyclins
proteins that regulate progression through cell cycle [during G1, they accum & peak in S; during mitosis, they accum after S and peak in metaphase]
replisome
combo of DNA & proteins
cytokinesis
div of cytoplasm [not in mitosis]
telophase
choromos change back to chromatids; nucleolus & nuclear memb reform
anaphase
sister chromatids separate & are pulled to opp spindle poles [now they're chromos]
metaphase
chromos line up at center & attach to spindle poles
prophase
chromatin become chromosomes; nuclear memb & nucleolus dissolve; chromos become visible; centrioles div in 2 & form spindle which arranges chromos into 2 groups
mitosis
prohpase, metaphase, anaphasem telophase
G0
stopping point; non-dividing cells
G1
cell enlarges; proteins made; prepare for S phase
interphase
period between divs
replication origins
specific regions of chromos where enzymes & other proteins bind
excision repair
the repairing of mutations [the phosphate bond is broken & the mutated DNA is removed; DNA polymerase fills in the deleted section with the right sequence and the phosphate bond is replaced]
diploid
cells that carry a double set of chromos [like 46 in humans]; represented by 2n
haploid
cells with just 1 set of chromos [like 23 in humans]; represented by n
homolgous
2 chromos of a pair in dipoid organisms; carry same genes
somatic cells
body cells
zygote
a fertilized egg that becomes diploid when the 2 haploid gametes fuse their nuclei
meiosis
produces haploid gametes; there are 2 divisions
3 ways meiosis is different from mitosis
1. cells divide twice which halves the chromos from 2n to n
2. a random mixture of maternal and paternal chromosomes are distributed to each gamete
3. homologous chromos pair up side by side during the first meiotic division
crossing over
the exchange of corresponding pieces of DNA etween homologous chromosomes during the 1st division
transcription
process of making an RNA molecule [RNA polym binds to coding strand at promotor region; RNA transcription elongates; RNA polymerase reaches terminator region]
translation
the process of amino acids being added to the protein being made [ribosome attaches to AUG; peptide bonds join sequential amino acids; ribosome reaches one of the stop codons]
mRNA
temporary copy of gene that encodes a protein; made in transcription; has the pattern used in translation; has cap of methyl-guanine; has tail of adenine to protect it
rRNA
make up ribosomes
tRNA
what amino acids attch to while protein is being made
codon
3 letter that make an amino acid
splicing
the process of removing introns from mRNA and reattaching exons
frame-shift
when a nucleotide is missing or added from the mRNA or DNA sequence; throws off not just one codon but all codons following it
point mutation
when one letter is changed in the mRNA/DNA sequence
uracil
RNA replacement for thymine
anticodons
the tRNA alter-ego of codons
viruses
have no cells but can replicate & evolve; rely on host
bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
lytic
host cell replicates viral DNA
lysogenic
viral DNA inserts into vell's DNA
proteosomes
break up faulty proteins
retroviruses
transcribe their RNA into DNA that is trancribed into mRNA & sent out into the cell
gene pool
total number of genes/alleles in a population
allele
the diff forms of genes
principle of segregation
only 1 allele is put into a gamete during meiosis [thus, he 2 alleles are separated from each other]
principle of independent assortment
alleles for 1 characteristic divide up among the gametes during meiosis independently of alleles for other traits
trisomy
3 copies of one chromos
genotype
the actual gene used with letters [Rr, rr, RR]
phenotype
the observable characteristic [brown hair]
homozygous
rr or RR
heterotzygous
Rr
incomplete dominance
the phenotype is intermediate [red flower + white flower = pink flower]
codominant
both phenotypes appear in heterozygotes [blood type]
multiple alleles
IA can share with i and IB can chare with i
X-linked trait
a trait whose gene is only carried on the X chromos [male fruitfly with white eyes]
nondisjunction
when homologous chromos don't separate [trisomy 21 is downsyndrome]
multifactorial
several genes affect a trait [like eye color]
Oparin Haldane hypothesis
1. there had to be a supply of organic molecs, produced by nonbiological processes
2. some processes had to assemble those small molecs into polymers like nucleic acids & proteins
3. other processes had to organize the polymers into a system that could replicate itself, using the organic molecs produced in step 1
stromatolites
a layered rockc produced by bacteria that deposit materials they collect from seawater
methanogens
possibly first organisms; anaerobic bacteria that obtain energy by using carbdiox to oxidize hydrogen
coacervates
like bubbles with membrane-like outsides in which reactions occur & that split & pass on info
symbiosis
communalism [1 benefits, 1 doesn't care]
mutualism [both benefit]
parasitism [1 benefits, one doesn't at all]
endosymbion hypothesis
mitochondria & plastids were once free-living prokas that got together & both benefitted