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288 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Autrotroph
make their own food
Heterotroph
obtain energy from foods they consume (cant use suns energy directly)
ATP
chemical compound used to store + release energy (consists of adrenine ribose and 3 phosphate groups)
Photosynthesis
process that plants use sunlight to convert water, COz and carbs
Photosynthesis equation
6CO2+6H20+light->C6H1206+6O2
Thylakoids
saclike photosynthetic material
Photosystems
clusters of chlorophyll and pigments that are the light-collecting units of the chloroplast
Stroma
region outside the thylakoid membranes where the calvin cycle takes place
Light-dependent reation
reaction that requires light
Calvin cyle
uses atp and nadph from the light dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars
calorie
amount of energy needed to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius
glycolysis
process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid
Cellular Respiration
the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
CR equation
6CO2+C6H12O6>6C02+6H2O+energy
NAD+
electron carrier used in glycolysis
Fermenatation
combined process of pathway (when oxygen is not present) and glycoloysis which releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen
anearobic
term meaning no oxygen present
Alcoholic Fermentation
type of fermenatation which prosuces CO2 and alcohol (used by yeast and other microorganisms)
pyruvic acid+NADH>alcohol+CO2+NAD+
Lactic Acid Fermentation
type of fermentation when pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid
(produced in muscles during rapid exercize)
PA+NADH-->lactic acid+NAD+
aerobic
term meaning oxygen present
Krebs Cycle
2nd stage of CR where pyruvic acid is broken down into CO2
Electron Transport
3rd stage of CR where high-energy electrons used to convert ADP to ATP
Location of Photosynthesis
chloroplasts
Location of CR
motochondria
genetics
scientific study of herdity
fertilization
male and female reproductive cells join
true-breeding
if allowed to self-pollinate, identical offspring as self would be produced
trait
specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
hybrids
offspring crosses between parents with different traits
genes
chemical factors that determine traits
alleles
different forms of a gene
principle of dominance
some alleles are dominant, others are recessive
segregation
seperation of alleles
gametes
sex cells
probability
likelihood that a particular event will occur
punnett square
diagram that shows possible outcomes of genetic crosses
homozygous
two identical alleles for same trait (TT)
heterozygous
two different alleles for came trait (Tt)
phenotype
physical characteristics
genotype
genetic makeup
independent assortment
principle stating that genes segregate independently during formation of gametes
Mendel's Principles
1) inheritence of biological characteristics is determined by genes (genes are passed down)
2)Some forms of genes are dom others are resess
3)all organisms have 2 copies of each gene (one from mom one from dad); segregate when gametes are formed
4) alleles for different genes segregate independently
Incomplete Dominance
when one allele is not completely dominant over another; pheotype is somewhere in between (red + white = pink)
Codominance
both alleles contribute to phenotype (chickens speckled with black and white)
Multiple alleles
genes with more than two alleles
Autrotroph
make their own food
Heterotroph
obtain energy from foods they consume (cant use suns energy directly)
ATP
chemical compound used to store + release energy (consists of adrenine ribose and 3 phosphate groups)
Photosynthesis
process that plants use sunlight to convert water, COz and carbs
Photosynthesis equation
6CO2+6H20+light->C6H1206+6O2
Thylakoids
saclike photosynthetic material
Photosystems
clusters of chlorophyll and pigments that are the light-collecting units of the chloroplast
Stroma
region outside the thylakoid membranes where the calvin cycle takes place
Light-dependent reation
reaction that requires light
Calvin cyle
uses atp and nadph from the light dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars
calorie
amount of energy needed to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius
glycolysis
process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid
Cellular Respiration
the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
CR equation
6CO2+C6H12O6>6C02+6H2O+energy
NAD+
electron carrier used in glycolysis
mutiple alleles
genes with more than 2 alleles
polygenic traits
traits controlled by 2 or more genes
homologous
sets of chromosomes where each chrom from the male has a corresponding chrom from the female
diploid
cell that contains both sets of homologous chroms
haploid
cell that contains one set of chroms
meiosis
process of reduction division in which the # if chroms/cell is cut in half through seperations of homo chroms in diploid cells
crossing-over
process when homo chroms that have paired up and formed tetrads exchange portions of their chromatids
base pairing
principle that states hydrogen bonds can only from between certain bases (adenine+thymine and guanine+cytosine)
histones
proteins that DNA is coiled around
chromatin
substance formed by tightly packed DNA and proteins
replication
process where dna is duplicated by a copying
DNA polymerase
principle enzyme involved in DNA replication
Messenger RNA
type of RNA that carrys copiers of instructions
Ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that makes up ribosomes
Tranfer RNA
type of RNA that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during the constuction of a protein
transcription
process where parts of a dna sequence are copied into the complementary squence of rna
RNA polymerase
an enzyme required in transcription
promoters
enzyme that will only bind to regions of DNA
introns
sequences of nucleotides that are not involved in coding for proteins
extrons
squences of nucleotides that are involved in coding for proteins
codon
each three letter "word" of mRNA
translation
process in which mRNA messages are decoded into a polypeptide chain
anticodon
three unpaired bases that each tRNA has
mutation
changes in genetic material
point mutation
occur at a single point in the DNA sequence
frameshift mutation
shift the entire reading frame of a genetic message
chromosomal mutation
change in the number of structure of a chromosome
operon
group of genes that operate together
TATA box
sequence of DNA that helpts position the RNA polymerase by making a point just before the point where transription begins
Differentiation
process where cells become specialized in a function
selective breeding
only animals with disired characteristics are allowed to produce the next generation
hybridization
crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms
inbreeding
continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
genetic engineering
making changes in the SNA code of a living organism
restriction enzyme
cut DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
gel electrophoresis
procedure that seperated DNA for analyzation
recombinant DNA
DNA molecules that are produced by combine DNA from different sources
polymerase chain reaction
process that allows copies of DNA to be made
Transformation
process where cells take in DNA from outside the cell and the external DNA becomes a component of the cells dna
genetic marker
gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria from foreign dna
clone
a member of a population of genetically identical cells produced by a single cell
sex chromosomes
2 of the 46 chromosomes that determine the sex (female= XX, males= Xy)
autosomes
all chromosomes except sex chromosomes
pedigree
chart that shows the relationships within a family
Blood type A
genotype:IAIA or IAi
antigen:A
safe transfusion to: A or AB from: A, O
blood type B
genotype:IBIB or IBi
antigen:B
safe transfusion to: B or AB from: B, O
blood type AB
genotype:IAIB
antigen:A and B
safe transfusion to: A or AB from: A, O
blood type O
genotype:ii
antigen:none
safe transfusion to: A,B,AB,O
from: O
Cystic fibrosis
excess mucus in lungs, digestive tract, liver
Tay-Sachs disease
Lipid accumulation in brain cells; mental deficiency; blindness; death=early childhood
Sickle Cell disease
misshapen or sickled red blood cells;damage to many tissues
Huntingtons Disease
Mental deterioration and uncontrollable movements
sex-linked genes
genes located on X and Y chromosomes
nondisjunction
when homologous chromosomes fail to seperate in meiosis
Gene therepy
absent or faulty gene is replaced by a normal working gene
evolution
change over time
Darwin
traveled to the galapagos and determined that many characteristics of animals and plants varied noticibly among the different islands
Hutton and Lyell
recognized that earth is many millions of years old and process that changed the earth in the past are the same that operate in the present
Lamarck
proposed that by selective use or disuse of organs, organisms acquired or lost certain traits during their lifetime and passes only the used ones off to their offspring
Malthus
reasoned that if human pop continues to gros unchecked, sooner or later there would be insufficient living space and food for everyone
fitness
the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific enviornment
adaptation
any inherited characteristic that increases an organims chance of survival
survival of the fittest
process in which individuals whom are better suited for their enviornment survive most successfully
natural selection
term referring to the survival of the fittest
homologous structures
structures that have different mature forms but develop form the same embryonic tissues
vestigial organs
organs reduced in size that are traces of homologous organs
gene pool
all genes including all the different alleles that are present in a pop
relative frequency
the number of times that the allele occurs in the gene pool compared with hte number of times other alleles for the same gene occur
single-gene trait
controlled by one gene with two alleles
directional selection
individuals at the end of the curve have higher fitness than in the middle or at the other end
stabilizing selection
individuals near the center of the curve have a higher fitnes than those on either end
diruptive selection
idividuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have a higher fitness than those in the middle
genetic drift
random change in allele frequency
founder effect
allele frequencies change b/c of the migration of a smaller group into the population
Hardy-Weinburg principle
allele frequencies in a pop will remain constant unless one or more factors cause those frequencies to change.
genetic equilibrium
the situation when allele frequencies remain constant
Conditions to mantain genetic equilibrium
1. random mating
2. pop must be large
3. no immigration or emmigration
4. no mutations
5. no natural selection
reproductive isolation
member of 2 pops can non interbreed and produce fertile offspring
behavorial isolation
2 pops are capable of breeding but have differences in courtship and reproductive strategies
geographical isolation
2 pops are seperated by geo barriers
temporal isolation
2 or more species reproduce at different times
fossil record
all information of past life
extinct
species died out
relative dating
age of fossil is determined by comparing its placement with that of fossils in other layer of rock
index fossil
used to comapre the relative age of fossils
radioactive dating
caculation of the age of a sample based on the amount of remaining radioactive isotopes it contains
half-life
the lenght of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
Early Earth
hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxode, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and water
endosymbiotic theory
eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiosis among several different prokaryotic organisms
taxonomy
discipline where organisms are classified and assigned a universally accepted name
binomial nomenclature
2 part naming system
first word is capitalized and 2nd word is lower case (always in italics)
genus
group of closely related species
Linnaeus's hierarchical system of classification
species, genus, family, order, class phylum, kingdom
Nervous System (structures and function)
Structure: brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
Function: recognizes and coordinated the body's response to change in its enternal and internal enviornments
Integumentary System (structures and function)
Structure: Skin, hair, nails, sweat, oil glands
Function: barrier against infection and injury; regulate body temp; protection against ultra-violet rays
Respiratory System (structures and function)
Structure: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs
Function: provides oxygen for CR; removes excess carbon dioxide from body
Digestive System (structures and function)
Structure: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, rectum
Function: converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by cells; absorbs food; eliminates waste
Excretory System (structures and function)
Structure: skin, lungs, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Function: eliminates waste products from body to mantain homeostasis
Skeletal System (structures and function)
Structure: bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons
Function: supports bodyl protects internal organs; allowes movement; stores mineral reserves; provides site for blood cell formation
Muscular System (structures, and function)
Structure: skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle
Function: works with skeletal system to produce voluntary movement; helps circulate blood; moves food around digestive system
Circulatory System (structures and function)
Structure: heart, blood vessels, blood
Function: brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells; fights infection; removes cell wastes; helps to regulate body temp
Endocrine System
(structures and function)
Structure: hypothalmus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries (F), testes (M)
Function: converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by cells; absorbs food; eliminates waste
Reproductive System
(structure and function)
Structure: testes, epididymis, vas derferens, urethra, and penis (M); ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina (F)
Function: Produces reproductive cells; in females; nurtures, and protects developing embryo
Lymphatic/ Immune System
(structure and function)
Structure: white blood cells, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, lymph vessels
Function: protects vody from disease; collects fluid lost from blood vessels and returns the fluid to the circulatory system
Specialized Cells
uniquely suited to peform a particular function
Epithelial tissue
includes glands and tissues that cover interior and exterior surfaces
connective tissue
provides support for the body and connects its parts
nervous tissue
transmits nerve impulses throughout the body
muscle tissues
works with bones to enable the body to move
feedback inhibition
process in which a stimulas produces a response that opposes the original stimulus
neurons
cells that transmit impulses in the nerv syst
resting potential
electrical charge across the cell membrane of a neuron in its resting state
action potential
reversal of charges from negative to positive
threshold
the minimum level of a stimulus that is required to activate a neuron
meninges
three layers of connective tissue in which the spinal cord and brain are wrapped in
cerebrospinal fluid
bathes the brain and spinal cord and acts as a shock absorber
cerebrum
largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntrary activities
cerebellum
controls muscle movement
brain stem
connects brain and spinal cordl controls body's most important functions; breathing swallowing ect.
thalmus
recieves messages from sensory receptors around the body and relays that info to the proper region of the cerebrum
hypothalmus
control center for the recognization of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger and body temp
reflex
quick automatic response to a stimulus
sensory division of the PNS
transmits impulses from sense organs to the central nervous system
motor division of the PNS
transmits impules from the central nervous system to the muscle or gland
somatic nervous system
regulates activities under conscious control
autonomic nervous system
regulates activies that are involuntary
5 categories of sensory receptors
pain, thermo, mechano, chemo, photo
stimulants
increase heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate; increase release of neuro transmitters in the brain
depressants
slow down heart rate, breathing rate, lower blood pressurem relax muscles, relieve tension
cocaine
causes sudden release in the brain of dopamine
opiates
mimic natural chemicals in the brain that help overcome pain
Alcohol
slows down the rate at which the CNS functions
Bone
solid networks of living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of calcium salts
periosteum
tough layer of connective tissue that surrounds the bone
haversian canals
contain blood vessels and nerves
bone marroe
soft tissue in side of cavities in bones
cartilage
connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of an embryo
ossification
process when cartilage is replaced with bone
ball-and-socket joint
freely movable (shoulder)
hinge joint
freely movable (elbow)
pivot joint
freely movable (knee)
saddle joint
freely movable (wrist)
ligaments
bone to joint
skeletal muscles
voluntary, straited
smooth muscles
involuntary, not straited
cardiac
only in heart, involuntary, straited
myosin
protein in thick filaments
actin
protein and thin filaments
epidermis
outter layer of skin
melanin
dark brown pigment
dermis
inner layer of the skin
pacemaker
sinoatrial node that is responsible for setting the pace for the heart
arteries
large vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues
capillaries
tiny vessels that bring nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorb waste
veins
vessels that return blood to the heart
atherosclerosis
condition in which fatty deposits (plague) build up on the walls of the arteries
red blood cells
transport oxygen
white blood cells
guard against infection, fight parasites, attack bacteria
lymphocytes
white blood cells that produce antibodies that destroy pathogens
lymphatic system
network of vessels, nodes, and organs that collect the fluid lost by the vlood and reutrn it to the circulatory system
lymph
fluid that is lost by blood
emphysema
loss of elasticity in the tissues of the lungs
chronic brochitis
bronchi becomes swollen and clogged with mucus
nutrients the body needs
water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals
vitamins
organic molecules that help regulate body processes
minerals
inorganic materials the body requires in small amounts
amylyse
enzyme in saliva
peristalsis
contractions that squeeze the food through the esophagus
chyme
mixture of stomach fluids and food
nephrons
functional unit of the kidney
filtration
process by which waste is removed from the blood
reabsorption
process by which blood is taken back into a vessel
hormones
chemicals released in one part of the body that affect activities of cells in other parts
target cells
cells that have receptors for a particular hormones
exocrine glands
release their secretions through ducts directly to the organs
endocrine glands
release secretions into the bloodstream
hypothalmus
controls pituitary gland
pituitary gland
regulates many endocrine glands
parathyroid glands
regulates the calcium level
thymus
stimulates t-cell develpotment and immune response
adrenal glands
help the body respond to stress
pineal glands
regulate rhythmic activities
thyroid
regulate metabolism
pancreas
regulate level of glucose in the blood
ovary
develops female secondary sex characteristics and eggs
testis
produces sperm and develops male secondary sex characteristics
steriod hormones
lipids; can cross cell membrane; goes into cytoplasm and nucleus
nonsteroid hormones
cannot pass through cell membranes; uses secondary messenger
prostaglandins
small amount of homonelike substances produced by red blood cells that are modified fatty acids and cause smooth muscles to contract
diabetes mellitus
condition where the pancreas fails to produce or properly use insulin
puberty
period of rapid growth and sexual maturation
ovulation
process in which the egg is released
menstrual cycle
process in which the egg is developes and released from an ovary
4 phases of menstrual cycle
1) follicular
2) ovulation
3) luteal
4) menstruation
fertilization
process of sperm joining an egg
zygote
fertilized egg
3 stages of early development
1) implantation
2) gastrulation
3) neurulation
morula
embryo as a solid ball of 64 cells
blastocyst
the cavity in the hollow structure that the morula has become
gastrulation
process of cell migration that froms the third layer of the cell
implantation
process the blastocyst attatches itself to the wall of the uterus
neurulation
development of the nervous system
placenta
connection between mother and developing embryo
fetus
embryo after 8 weeks
disease
any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal function of the body
germ theory of disease
infectious diseases are caused my mircroorganisms (germs)
Kosh's postulates
1)pathogen should be found in sick organism not healthy one
2)pathogen must be isolated and grown in pure culture
3)when placed in new host, same disease should be developed
4) injected pathogen should be isolated from second host and should be identical to original pathogen
5 agents of diease
virus, bacteria, protist, worm, fungi
How diseases are spread
physical contact, contaminated food and water, infected animals
vector
animals that carry pathogens from person to person
antibiotics
compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of the host
first line of defense
keeps pathogens out of body; skin mucus; sweat tears
second line of defense
inflammatory response
nonspecific response to tissue damage caused by injury or infection
interferon
proteins that help other cells resist viral infections
immune response
series of specific defenses activated if the pathogen gets into the body that attack specific disease causing agent
antigen
substance that triggers immune response
humoral immunity
process in which B cells provide immunity aginst antigens and pathogens in the body fluids
cell mediated immunity
process in which t cells provide defense against abnormal cells and pathogens inside of living cells
antibodies
proteins released by plasma cells that recognize and bind to antigens
killer t cells
track down and destory unfamiliar material
helper t cells
produce memory t cells
memory t cells
cause secondary response if the same pathogen enters again
vaccination
injection of a weakened or mild form of a pathogen that produces immunity
allergies
overreaction of the immune system
histamines
chemicals that increase mucus production in the res. syst
asthma
a chronic res. disease in which the air passages are narrower than usual
autoimmune disease
diseases caused by the immune system making a mistake and attacking bodys own cells
transmission of HIV
1)sexual contact
2)contact with blood
3)breast milk