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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
. The endangered species status of red wolf was once doubtful, because the red wolf was not considered as a species; instead it was thought to be a hybrid between the ______ and the ______.
grey wolf and coyote
The common biological definition proposed by Ernst Mayr states: Groups of actually or potentially ______ natural populations which are _____ isolated from other such groups.
interbreeding, reproductively
The ______ definition was used by Linnaeus in his classification system that is based of the concept of ______ of species.
typological species, fixative
The four species definitions used in biological classification are: ______, ______, ______, and ___.
typological, morphological, ecological, biological
The challenges in defining species include:

______

­­­______

______

______

______
modes of reproduction, phenotypic variations, different types of organisms, ecological niches, fossils of extinct organisms.
Two most important considerations of the pluralistic species definition are to achieve _____ and _____.
cohesion and parsimony
The three mechanisms of speciation are: ______ speciation, ______ speciation, ______ speciation.
allopatric, sympatric, parapatric
Speciation is a multi-step process that takes place over many generations. The first step of mutation is when two populations become ______ isolated from each other. This prevents interbreeding and blocks ______.
geographically, gene flow
New traits occur through mutation; these traits will assume by the population through ______ and ______.
natural selection, genetic drift
There are only two species of orangutans in the world, and they live in the tropical rain forest of ____ and _____.
sumatra and borneo
The frequent type of speciation is known as ______ speciation, which is caused by ______, leading to the interruption of ______.
allopatric, geographical isolation, gene flow
There are two existing chimpanzees living in the ______ rain forests, one is the common chimpanzees. The other one is the ___.
Africa, bonobos
A long lasting ______ in Zaire 2 million years ago, forcing the ______ from the bonobo’s foraging area.
draught, gorillas
Africa was entirely covered by forest ______ years ago, until a global weather change caused by the formation of the ______ mountain range.
8 million, Himalayan
Human footprints dated 3.5 million years in age were found in ______. They were shown to belong to _____.
Laetoli, Homo afarensis
. The three mating barriers are: ______, ______, and _____ barriers.
habitat, behavioral, temporal
The two fertilization barriers are: ______ and ______ barriers.
mechanical, gametic
The three hybrid survival barriers are: ______, ______, and ______.
reduced hybird viability, reduced hybird fertility, hybird breakdown
How long ago when this human behavioral first appeared?
Pair bonding ______ MY
Controlled of fire ______ MY
Stone tools _____ MY
Home base ______ MY
Language ______ years ago
Bipedalism ______ MY
1.7
1.0
2.0
2.0
200,000
4.0
Homo heidelbergensis split around 250,000 years ago into___ and _____.
Homo neanderthalensis, homo sapiens
The first human species who left Africa was ____ about ______ years ago.
homo erectus, 1.8 million
The first human stone tool was a ______ made by ______.
hand axe, homo habilis
At about 145,000 years ago, Africa suffered from a severe ______, and the ancestors of ______ nearly became ______.
drought, modern humans, extinct.
Evidence from ______ suggested that all modern humans are descendents from a small band of humans living in ______ about _____ years ago.
molecular data, Africa, 110.000
Neandertal spear points were made from ______, and they were not designed for ____.
stone, throwing
Human spear points were made from ______, and they can be thrown from a great distance with another invention known as the ______.
antler, spear thrower
Prehistoric arts in the form of beads and carving first appeared in association with ______ about ______ ago
modern humans, 40,000
The human brains have 100 ______ neurons with 100 ______ connections.
billion, trillion
The Paleolithic hand axes were used for: ______, ______, _____, and ___.
cutting, digging, knocking off flakes, and butchering animals
Human brain is vital in _____, as it is used as a display of ______.
courtship, reproductive fitness