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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The endangered species status of red wolf was once doubtful, because the red wolf was not considered as a species; instead it was thought to be a hybrid between the ______ and the ______.
Grey wolf, coyote
The common biological definition proposed by Ernst Mayr states: Groups of actually or potentially ______ natural populations which are ______ isolated from other such groups.
Interbreeding, reproductively
3. The ______ definition was used by Linnaeus in his classification system that is based of the concept of ______ of species.
Typological species, fixative
4. The four species definitions used in biological classification are: ______, ______, ______, and ______.
typological species definition, morphological species definition, ecological species definition, biological species definition
The challenges in defining species include:
___modes of reproduction___

­­­___phenotypic variations___

___different types of organisms___

___ecological niches___

___fossils of extinct organisms___
Two most important considerations of the pluralistic species definition are to achieve
cohesion___ and ___parsimony___.
The three mechanisms of speciation are
allopatric___ speciation, ___sympatric___ speciation, ___parapatric
Speciation is a multi-step process that takes place over many generations. The first step of mutation is when two populations become ______ isolated from each other. This prevents interbreeding and blocks ______.
geographically, gene flow
New traits occur through mutation; these traits will assume by the population through
natural selection___ and ___genetic drift
There are only two species of orangutans in the world, and they live in the tropical rain forest of
Sumatra___ and ___Borneo
The frequent type of speciation is known as ______ speciation, which is caused by ______, leading to the interruption of _____.
allopatric, geographical isolation, gene flow
There are two existing chimpanzees living in the ______ rain forests, one is the common chimpanzees. The other one is the ______.
Africa, bonobos
A long lasting ______ in Zaire 2 million years ago, forcing the ______ from the bonobo’s foraging area.
Draught, gorillas
Africa was entirely covered by forest ______ years ago, until a global weather change caused by the formation of the ______ mountain range.
8 million, Himalayan
Human footprints dated 3.5 million years in age were found in ______. They were shown to belong to ______.
Laetoli, Homo afarensis
The three mating barriers are
habitat, behavioral, and temporal barriers
The two fertilization barriers are:
mechanical and gametic barriers.
The three hybrid survival barriers are
reduced hybrid viability, reduced hybrid fertility, and hybrid breakdown
How long ago when this human behavioral first appeared?
Pair bonding ___1.7___ million years ago
Controlled of fire ___1.0___ million years ago
Stone tools ___2.0___ million years ago
Home base ___2.0___ million years ago
Language ___200,000___ years ago
Bipedalism ___4.0___ million years ago
Homo heidelbergensis split around 250,000 years ago into
Homo neanderthalensis___ and ___Homo sapiens___.
The first human species who left Africa was ______ about ______ years ago.
homo erectus, 1.8 million yrs ago
The first human stone tool was a
hand axe made by homo habilis
At about 145,000 years ago, Africa suffered from a severe ___ and the ancestors of ______ nearly became ______.
drought, modern humans, exctinct
Evidence from ______ suggested that all modern humans are descendents from a small band of humans living in ______ about ______ years ago.
molecular data, Africa, 110,000
Neandertal spear points were made from ______, and they were not designed for ______.
Stone, throwing
Human spear points were made from ______, and they can be thrown from a great distance with another invention known as the ______.
antler, spear thrower
Prehistoric arts in the form of beads and carving first appeared in association with ______ about ______ ago
modern humans, 40,000 yrs
The human brains have 100 ______ neurons with 100 ______ connections.
billion, trillion
The Paleolithic hand axes were used for:
cutting, digging, knocking off flakes, and butchering animals
Human brain is vital in ______, as it is used as a display of ______.
courtship, reproductive fitness