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132 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a manipulated variable?
One that changes.
How many repeated measurements should you take?
A minimum of 3.
During an experiment, the parts that remain the same:
Constant
What is not found in a controlled experiment?
Uncontrolled variables
A possible explanation put into a testable statement is:
A hypothesis.
One cm^3 is equivalent to:
1 ml
During meiosis the separation of a gene pair on one pair of chromosomes and its distribution to gametes is independent of the distribution of other gene pairs on other pairs of chromosomes. This is called:
the law of independent assortment
The exchange of corresponding parts of homologous chromosomes during meiosis is called:
crossing over
Any hybrid individual organism is:
heterozygous
A gene that expresses its trait and masks or stops another gene of a pair is said to be:
dominant
The child of two individuals, one heterozygous with type A blood, and the other heterozygous with Type B blood, has about what chance of having Type O blood?
25%
These two scientists discovered the structure of DNA and produced a model of how it works:
Watson and Crick
The failure of chromosomes to separate properly is called:
nondysjunction (a mutation)
Traits that are determined by genes on the X chromosomes are said to be:
sex-linked
How do spontaneous mutations act on the gene pool?
they provide variety
Which one of the following gases is NOT thought to have been present in much quantity in Earth's early atmosphere?
oxygen
The first forms of life most likely contained:
bacteria - prokaryotes
Most fossils are found in:
sedimentary rock
A fossil of an ancient fish's fin shows a bone structure that is quite similar to a human hand. This similarity might suggest that:
evolutionary-liked; homologous organs
The age of the earth is estimated to be about:
4.6 bya
What sort of adaptation does the Viceroy and Monarch butterfly suggest?
mimicking
The age of fossils can be determined by measuring the amount of what variable in the rock?
carbon-14
Natural variation is a vital theoretical part of Darwinian evolutionary thought because it:
is the survival of the fittest
Bacteria are primarily classified by their:
shapes
The phylum Arthropoda includes animals with:
jointed legs
Which group of animals have a covering of hair?
mammals
What represents a classification for organisms?
a dichotomus key
Who is the persona generally credited with devisint the binomail classificaly system?
Linaeus
The science of classifying living things is called:
taxonomy
The scientific name for corn is Zea mays. Zea is what?
genus
For grasshoppers and locusts to be in the same family, they must also be in the same:
order
Complex organ systems are found primarily in what kingdom?
animal
Which magnification should be used to observe the largest field of view of a leaf?
relatively small number
If a cell contains a nucleus, it must be what type of cell?
eukaryotic
What is a structure common to plant cells but not found in animal cells?
cell wall, chloroplasts, large vacuole
The organelle that is involved in the digestion of large particles is the:
lysosome
Which of the following structures are found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cless?
ribosomes
What is a primary difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
nucleus
What is the major component of most cell membranes?
phospholipids
The system of folded membranes or canals that act as a transport system for the cell is/are:
endoplasmic reticulum
The overall functions of a eukaryotic cell are managed by what structure?
nucleolus
A lysosome fused to a vacuole in a cell is most similar in function to what organ in a multicellular organism?
stomach
Cell membrane proteins act as:
keys/transport systems
Aqueous homeostasis is maintained in all organisms through the action of which cell structure?
membrane
What ideas are included in the current cell theory?
1. all cells come from existing cells
2. everything is made from cells
3. cells are the basis of life
The statement "All living cells arise from preexisting cells" was first proposed by:
virchow
the smallest units of life in all living things are:
cells
What would probably happen if you place a saltwater protozoan in fresh water?
shrink
what is the principal role of the enzymes in cells?
catalysts
Water dissolves a great many differnet ionic and molecular compounds because of what characteristic?
polarity
nucleic acids are made up of:
nucleotides
chemical analysis of mitochondria indicates that these organelles:
produce energy
Where does enzyme manufacture take place?
ribosomes
the plasma membrane of plant and animal cells is made of:
phospholipids and protein
most metabolic waste of animals includes:
CO2 and H20
which organic compounds are the building blocks of proteins?
amino acids
describe the shape of a lipid.
a head and two tails
describe the shape of a sugar molecule
pentagon/hexagon
describe the shape of a protein
chain
the primary difference between RNA and DNA is that RNA has:
uracil, one-strand, ribose
in DNA, the base cytosine pairs with only what other base?
guanine
the "code word" or codon for an amino acid is made of how many bases?
3
what is the subunit of a carb?
glucose
subunit of a lipid?
fatty acid
subunit of a protein?
amino acids
subunit of a nucleic acid?
nucleotide
amino acids are carried to ribosomes after they are attached to:
tRNA
what binds the chains of amino acid molecules together?
peptide bonds
is it necessary for a molecule of mRNA to attach to a ribosome for protein production?
yes, it decodes
anticodons are a part of which molecules?
tRNA
the process by which proteins are built is called:
protein synthesis
the DNA of all living things contain the same four nitrogen bases:
guanine, cytosine, adenine, thymine
which component of plant vascular tissue is responsible for the transport of water and minerals?
xylem
students observing onion skin cells and cheek cells could tell the difference between them because onion skin cells have:
cell walls, chloroplasts, rectangular
the process by which organic molecules are assembled from smaller subunits by dehydration is called synthesis and requires energy. what is the name of the opposite process, where macromolecules are broken down and energy is released?
hydrolysis
in a chlorplast, the single circles that are stacked are called:
thylocoids
the stack of circles:
grana
the stringy stuff:
stroma
osmosis involves the movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane in which direction?
high -> low
leaves are primarily used for:
photosynthesis
stomata are surrounded by:
guard cells
the genetic material found in the nucleus of most cells is composed of:
DNA
the shape of a DNA molecule could best be described as a:
double helix
two identical daughter cells result from the division of a single cell. what is this process called?
mitosis
if the body cell of an animal has 28 chromosomes, its diploid (2N) number is:
56
chromosomes line up in a single row along the equator of a cell in what phase of cell division?
metaphase
which structures push and pull the chromosomes into place during cell division?
spindle fibers
chromosomes diffuse or uncoil to form a new nucleus during what phase of cell division?
telephase
cyanobacteria are:
blue-green algae
simple organisms without a nucleus, such as bacteria, are in what kingdom?
monerans
to produce fertile offspring two organisms generally need to be in the same:
species
which mammals are where the young have an early developmental period inside a pouch?
marsupials
in order to reproduce, amphibians must:
return to water
what are viruses?
non-living things until they find hosts
if two organisms share a very high % of amino acid sequences, how are they related?
similar DNA
what are tracheophytes?
plants from the ground
angiosperms primarily produce seeds in:
fruit
examples of vascular plants without seeds are:
ferns
gymnosperms are plants that often produce seeds in:
cones (pinecones)
what is the enzyme injected by a virus into a host cell which changes viral RNA into DNA?
polymers
why is the drug AZT used to treat AIDS?
helps boost
CO2 accounts for about what % of atmosphere?
21%
a cat eats a snake, which ate a grasshopper, which ate some grass. the grasshopper was a:
primary consumer
if many of the soil bacteria in a forest were destroyed, which substances would be less available for tree growth?
SPONCH
nitrogen is released to the abiotic parts of the biosphere from the processes of death and:
decomposition
a relationship between organisms in which both organisms benefit is called:
mutualistic
the group formed by several populations occupying the same area is called:
community
what principal factors have led a massive increase in the world's human population over the last 500 years?
better health, technology, etc.
about what is the current human population?
6.2 bil
what would be an accurate statement about the current trends in human world population?
increasing
the regular progression of species replacement in a developing ecosystem is called:
succession
what practices led to the recent success in reestablishing the bald eagles' population?
laws and regulations on hunting
which primary products result from photosynthesis and are the starting point for cellular respiration?
sugar and oxygen
in most plants, photosynthesis occurs most rapidly when the plants are exposed to equal intensities of:
sunlight
the raw materials used by green plants for photosyntehsis are:
CO2 and H2O
the broad, flat structure of the leaves of most plants makes them well adapted to
absorbing sunlight
what can go in the blank?
6CO2+6H20->_____+6O2
C6H12O6 (photosynthesis)
green plastids that trap sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in simple sugar molecules are called:
chloroplasts
what is the process by which the energy needed for cellular activities is released from glucose?
cellular respiration
the breakdown of glucose in the asbsence of oxygen is known as:
fermentation
the term that represents all of the chemical activities that occur in an organism is:
metabolism
identify the waste products of respiration:
CO2 + H2O + energy
the energy in glucose is released in what process?
cell respiration
when glucose and fructose join together to form sucrose, a water molecule is released. this process:
dehydration synthesis
many monosaccharides joined together never form:
cellulose, disaccharides
when polysaccharides split, water is taken in and used to do the splitting:
hydrolysis
a triglyceride is formed with one glycerol molecule and what else?
3 fatty acids
which of the following are not formed by combos of amino acids?
proteins, meats, enzymes, pigments, etc.
why do plants not live at depths greater than 100m in oceans?
no sunlight
the kidneys use energy to move molecules and ions in order to keep blood chemically balanced. this process is an example of cells using energy for what purpose?
homeostasis
the ability of the human body to maintain a constant body temperature is an example of:
homeostasis/equilibrium
which of the following substances passes through the cell membrane by the process of osmosis?
H2O