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73 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Kin Selection
average proportion of genes of individual A that are present also in individual B
Coefficient of relatedness (r)
Parent - offspring = full siblings, half siblings,
Hamilton's rule
Inclusive fitness
Direct and Indirect fitness
Direct fitness
personal reproduction
Indirect fitness
additional reproduction by relatives made possible by an individual's actions
a group of individuals of one species that live in a particular geographic area
Unitary organisms
each individual is a separate genetic individual
Modular organisms
genetic individulas consist of multiple modules
Mark recapture
a sample is collected, marked and released
a second sample is taken and the numbers of marked and unmarked individuals recorded
population size is calculated as
N=(Mn / R)
What is N, M, n, and R in the equation N=Mn /R?

what is this equation used for?
N=population size
M= number marked in 1st sample
n= total in 2nd sample
R=recaptures in 2nd sample

It's used for the mark recapture technique of measuring densityq
Assumptions of the mark recapture technique.
1. Random samples
2. No change in population size
3. Probability of capturing any individual is same for each period
how the organisms in a population are distributed in space
patterns of dispersion
clumped, random, uniform
most common pattern in nature
rather rare pattern in nature, due to lack of attraction or repulsion b/n individualsq
due to repulsion b/n individuals
death rate
converse of mortality...If mortality is 0.2, then this is 0.8
birth rate
characteristics or populaions
sex ratio
what a life table can determine
1. longevity
2. proportion of individuals htat live to reproductive age
3. fecundity of different ages
4. make predictions about future population size and age structure.
demographic rates
life tables and survivorship curves
Population size determined by these 4 processes B, D, I and E...what do they stand for?
B-number of births
D-number of deaths
I-number of immigrants
E-number of emigrants
change in population size
(delta N / delta t)=B-D
Intraspecific competition
competition within a species
logistic growth
growth that is density dependent
exponential growth
growth that in density independent
what is K?
carrying capacity
ecological footprint
expresses in hectares of land per person the current demand of global resources made by each country.
Example of encounter competition
jackals eating a dead giraffe
interaction is detrimental to both species
interaction is beneficial to one species and detrimental to the otherq
predation (includes paratism)
interaction is beneficial to both species
one species benefits from the interaction but the other is unaffected
interaction between species
intraspecific competition
negative impact of one species on another arising form depletion of a shared limited resource
example of Preemptive competition
barnacles and sea anenomes competing for space
exaple of overgrowth competition
plants in jungle competing for sunlight, space, and nutrients
exploitation competition
competitor removes resources so they're unavailable for others
interferance competition
direct aggressive interactions between individuals
larger space defended, access denied to any resources in territory
chemical competition
chemical toxins released to inhibit growth of competitor
ecological niche
the ecological role of a species in the community
outcomes of competition
Stable coexistence
competitive exclusion
Stable coexistence
populations of both species persist but at lower densities
competitive exclusion
popoulation of one species driven extinct where both species are present.
Competitive Exclusion Principle
species having identical resource requirements cannot coexist
fundamental niche
set by resource requirements without competition
realized niche
where both species live when there is competition going on
eating part of a plant
an insect that lays eggs on living hosts
secondary plant compounds
chemical defenses "chemicals made by plants for protection against predators."
Errington's "doomed surplus" hypothesis
reproductive rate of prey species > predator species as prey (increases), predator (increases) because different rate of reproduction. increase of predators cannot keep up w/increase of prey
orgasims that live off hosts
short term interactions
lethal interactions
non-lethal interactions
long term interactions
morphological adaptation
examples are: camouflage, anatomical defenses, fake eyes, false heads, quills, spines, armor
Physiological adaptations
example is: chemical defenses
behavioral adaptations
examples are: living in groups
confusion effect, mobbing, increased vigilance
organisms that obtain nutrients and other essential resourcs from one or a very few "host" individuals
multiply within hosts, and are single celled organisms, examples are viruses, bacteria, and protozoans
mostly worms, exaples are endo and ectoparasites, such as flukes, tapeworms, etc
multiply within hosts, and are single celled organisms, examples are viruses, bacteria, and protozoans
live with in the host
live on the surface of the hosts
positive relationship where two species benefit
obligate mutualist
species cannot exist without the other
facultative mutualist
mutualistic relationship not essential but beneficial
energetic interaction
transfer of energy form one species to another
nutritional interaction
transfer of inorganic nutrients from one species to another
protective interaction
active or passive defense of the other species
transportative interaction
transport of whole individuals of to the other species