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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sexual reproduction, gives rise to 4 daughter cells, and used to produce gametes is meiosis or mitosis?
meiosis.
Requires two rounds of cell division, produces daughter cells that are not genetically identical to each other, and produces haploid cells is meiosis or mitosis?
meiosis.
in humans it produces cells with 23 chromosomes, each daughter cell has only one sex chromosome, and crossing-over between homologous chromosomes occurs frequently in meiosis or mitosis?
meiosis.
often called reduction division, one type of problem with division is nondisjunction, and daughter cells do not go through the process again in meiosis or mitosis?
meiosis.
In human females, this process starts at birth, stops in the middle of the process, then completes the process later in life.
meiosis.
asexual reproduction, gives rise to two daughter cells, and used for growth and repair is meiosis or mitosis?
mitosis.
requires just one round of cell division, produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other, and produces diploid cells is meiosis or mitosis?
mitosis.
in humans it produces cells with 46 chromosomes, each daughter cell has two sex chromosomes, and no need for crossing over between homologous chromosomes in meiosis or mitosis?
mitosis.
the most common form of reproduction in simple single-celled organisms, one type of problem with the division cycle is cancer, and each daughter cell may go through the process many times in meiosis or mitosis?
mitosis.
In human females, this process continues throughout that person's lifetime.
mitosis.
What is an allele that is always expressed when present, regardless of the other allele?
dominant.
What is an allele that is expressed only when both copies of that allele are present?
recessive.
What is the name for the physical traits that can be observed?
phenotype
the genetic makeup of the individual
genotype
having two alleles that are the same for a particular trait
homozygous
having two different alleles for a particular trait
heterozygous
pairs of alleles segregate during meiosis
principle of segregation
each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs during meiosis
principle of independent assortment
a diagram that shows how traits are inherited during fertilization
Punnet square
an individual with a dominant phenotype but unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual
testcross
a family tree that shows the inheritance of a trait
pedigree
an individual who is heterozygous for a recessive genetic disease
carrier
inheritance where a heterozygous offspring expresses a phenotype that is in between that of two different homozygous parents
incomplete dominance
inheritance where a heterozygous offspring expresses the phenotypes of both alleles
codominance
one gene affects many different traits
pleiotropy
one trait is determined by many different genes
polygenic inheritance
a trade of genetic material between a pair of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
crossing over
inheritance of genes that occur on the sex chromosomes
sex-linked inheritance
three domains of living things
domain bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
organisms in domain bacteria and archaea
organisms with prokaryotic cells
organisms in domain eukarya
organisms with eukaryotic cells (larger)
four kingdoms within domain eukarya
kingdom protista, plantae, fungi, and animalia
first line of defense
non-specific system of external barriers such as skin, sweat, saliva, tears etc.
second line of defense
non-specific and entirely inside the body, such as white blood cells and the inflammatory response
third line of defense
immune system
long thin combination of DNA and protein molecules
chromatin
the chromatin becomes packed into this when the cell is dividing
chromosome
chromosomes duplicate before the divison process begins and consists of these two copies
sister chromatids
sister chromatids are two identical chromosomes connected at this point
centromere
stop and go ahead signals to prevent undesirable cell division
control system
these tumors can often be completely removed by surgery
benign
tumors capable of moving to new sites in the body
malignant
malignant tumors move to new sites in the body
metastasis
cancer treatments that are referred to as slash, burn, and poison
surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
most cells will only divide if they have a solid surface on which to attach and anchor themselves
anchorage dependence
when growing on a surface, animal cells will multiply to form a single layer and usually stop dividing when they touch one another
density-dependent inhibition
genes that cause cancer
oncogenes
normal gene that has the potential to become a concer-causing oncogene
proto-oncogene
chemical or physical agents that can cause changes in DNA (cancer)
mutagen (carcinogens)
leading cause of death from cancer
lung cancer
most common but most treatable form of cancer
skin cancer
second most common type of cancer and is slow-growing
prostate cancer
father of genetics
gregor mendel
methods used to produce new combinations of genes, usually involving the insertion of a gene from one organism into the DNA of another organism
recombinant DNA technology