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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Region of constricted DNA which holds 2 chromatids together
Consists of a DNA molecule wound around a core of 8 histone proteins
An accumulation of both RNA molecules and structural proteins. Forms near a particular region of a particular chromosome, which contains the genes responsible for the production of these molecules. Used in the assembly of ribosomes.
Cytoplasmic particle consisting of 2 subunits synthesized in the nucleus. Assembled by RNA molecules and structural protein molecules. The subunits pass through the nuclear envelope into the cytosol. Form the this object "on demand"
Two principle stages of the Cell Cycle
Interphase, M (Mitotic) Phase
Interphase consists of
G1 Phase, S Phase, and G2 phase
G1 phase
Variable in length..checkpoint to "decide" whether or not the cell will divide again...if yes..multiplication of organelles, rapid growth and increase in size
cells that are arrested in G1 for long periods are said to be in this state
Gap--G1, gap b/w M phase and S phase, G2 is gap between Sphase and M phase
S Phase
Synthesis of DNA in which each chromosome is being replicated to form a pair of identical chromatids; centrosome replicates
G2 Phase
Cell attains its full, mature size, all functions essential to the life of the cell are occuring, final preparations for m phase, synthesis of protein tupulin for hte production of microtubules
Production of Microtubules begins during the G2 phase. Tubulin is created, and the tubulin subunits are assembled into long fibers called microtubules.
Center for production of microtubules, consists of microtubules
Consists of microtubules in the shape of a sunburst
90% of Cell Cycle
Interphase (%)
M Phase
Consists of cytokinesis and mitosis
division of nucleus
Division of cytoplasm
5 Stages of Mitosis
Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Mitotic spindle begins to form, consists of microtubular fibers which extend between the two centrosomes. Centrosomes begin movement to opposite sides of the cell
Chromosome consists of
2 Sister Chromatids
Nuclear envelope disassembled, microtubule from one pole attaches to kinetochore of one one member of a chromatid pair, and microtubule from opposite pole attaches to kinetochore of the other member of the pair
Nonkinetochore Microtubules
Cross-linking proteins between microtubules from opposite poles, push microtubules apart in anaphase
Longest of the phases, alignment takes place midplane, centromeres of chromatid pairs are aligned on this plane, pulls toward opposite poles are exactly balanced
Shortest stage; centromeres divide, chromatid pairs are broken, begins to reduce the supercoiling of the chromatin, so the centromeres divide, new chromosomes are formed from the breaking chromatids
Motor Proteins
Pull the kinetochore and new chromosome to the pole
Tubulin units are broken apart
Nuclear envelopes form around new nuclei, nucleoli are reconstituted, chromatin becomes diffuse (not visible), now overlapping cytokinesis
Cleavage furrow
groove that forms in the region of the formerly identified midplane
band of structures immediately inside the cell membrane, consist of contractile proteins
Plant Cells with Rigid cell wall
rigid due to cellulose
Golgi Apparatus
Function: to package and redistribute molecules synthesized in the cell
Membrane Vesicles
directed to midplane by phragmoplast, contains cellulose, parallel array of remains of former nonkinetochore microtubules
the study of: hereditary and variation; how characteristics of parents are inherited by their offspring
-Fundamental unit of inheritance
-A sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule
the position of the gene on the chromosome
genetic cross
A mating of sexually reproducing organisme
True breeding
Genetically pure; homozygous for the specific genes that control the characteristics under consideration
Offspring of True-Breeding parents
genetically identical to the parents in respect to the characteristics under consideration
cross between parents genetically dissimilar in respect to characteristics under consideration
Offspring of dissimilar parents
Dissimilar to both parents
Punnett Square
a format for representing a genetic cross
describes the inheritance of the alleles of a single gene (locus)
Dihybrid Cross
Inheritance of the alleles of two genes (loci)
Each gene controlled by complete dominance
Meiotic Cell Division
Essential for sexual reproduction
Division of 1 specialized diploid (2n) cell to yield 4 haploid (n) cells (gametes)
Haploid cells resulting from meiosis
Meiotic Cell division consists of
Meiosis, Cytokinesis
Principle of Independent Assortment
The alleles of genes on non-homologous chromosomes segregate independently of one another during meitoci cell division
2 types of nucleic acid
DNA & RNA; both polymers
the total complement of an organism's genetic information; this information is stored as the sequences of nucelotides in DNA molecules
Genes in Nucleotides
a specific sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule; each gene codes for the synthesis of a specific protein (polypeptide)
chain of covalently bonded amino acids, which determines the sequences of amino acids in a protein
protein molecules; essential catalysts in the reactions of metabolism
Comprehensive function is to regulate and control the cell; conducts this function by directing the synthesis of enzyme proteins
3 Components of Nucleotides
Pentose (5-Carbon) sugar
Phosphate group
Nitrogenous Base
Two Classes of Nitrogenous Bases
adenine, guanine (in both DNA & RNA)
cytosine (in DNA & RNA), thymine (DNA), uracil (RNA)
Double Strand
In either strand of the double helix, any 2 nucleotides may be adjacent to one another and covalently bonded...endless possibilities for sequences of nucleotides in either strand
Complementary Base Paring
Purines and pyrimidines are positioned directly opposite one another
What holds the 2 strands of the double helix together?
Hydrogen bonds
How many bonds between adenine and thymine?
How many bonds between cyanine and guanine?
parallel array of remains of former nonkinetochore microtubules
enzyme which begins to reduce the supercoiling of the chromatin, necessary for centromere division