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82 Cards in this Set

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Heterotroph
Organism that cannot fix carbon and uses organic carbon for growth; Must eat to stay alive
Herbivore
Animals that eat plants
Omnivore
Animals that eat other animals
Animals use these strategies for feeding
suspension
deposit
fluid
mass
filter small organisms or bits of organic debris from water by means of cilia or other such structures

feeding by sifting through soil

feed on fluid from other organisms

feed by chewing chunks of food by mouthparts or special toxin-injecting organs
What provides more energy when broken down, carbohydrates or fats?
fats (more than twice the energy per gram)
Nutrient
substance an organism needs to stay alive
Food
substance that contains nutrients
Essential Nutrients
Nutrients that cannot be synthesized, must be obtained from diet
Organic compounds that function as coenzymes and are required in only minute amounts
Vitamins
Inorganic compounds that influence osmotic balance and are required fro normal membrane function
Also what are the major ions in body
Electrolytes
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride
Ingestion
taking in food
Digestion
Breakdown of food into smaller pieces that allow for absorption
key process in animals due to having to break down bolus's of molecules
Absorption
Uptake of specific ions and molecules that act as nutrients
Elimination
Disposal of wastes
Main parts of Incomplete Digestive Tract and functions
Tentacles
Mouth
Pharynx
Gastrovascular Cavity
Capture Prey
Ingests food and eliminates wastes
Transports food and wastes
Site of digestion and absorption
The diversification of a single ancestral lineage into many species, each of which lives in a different habitat or employs a distinct feeding method
Adaptive Radiation
Endemic species
species that live nowhere else
Explain the general pattern in animal evolution relating to the mouth
Mouthparts have diversified in response to natural selection for exploiting a diversity of food sources. The structure of jaws, teeth, and other mouthparts correlates with their function in harvesting and processing food
Incomplete Digestive Tract
Single opening which also is where food is ingested and wastes are eliminated

Mouth opens into gastrovascular cavity
Complete Digestive Tract
2 openings that start at mouth and end of anus
Tubelike digestive tract
Advantages of tubelike digestive tract
1) Allows animals to feed on large pieces of food, expanding the types of food that can be ingested

2) Different chem and physical processes can be separated within the canal

3) b/c of one-way flow of food and wastes, material can be ingested and digested continuously
Enzyme responsible for starch digestion in mouth, initiates digestion of carbs
Amylase
salivary enzyme from tongue which begins the digestion of lipids
lipase
Found in the mouth, this releases water and glycoproteins called mucins
Salivary Glands
Wave of muscular contractions which propels food down the esophagus
Peristalsis
Simple sac that holds food and regulates its flow into the stomach in bird species
Crop
ringlike muscles bracketing the stomach which control movement of material through gut
Sphincters
Hole in an epithelium that damages the underlying basement membrane and tissues
Ulcer
What kind of cells secrete H+ and Cl-, which leads to HCl
Parietal Cells
Is Lumen of stomach acidic or basic?
Acidic
What kind of cells secrete pepsinogen?
Chief Cells
In what conditions is Pepsinogen converted to pepsin?
Acidic conditions
Responsible for completing most digestion and absorption
Small Intestine
What organ(s) have secreations which aid in digestion in the small intestine?
Pancreas and Liver
Primary function to compact wastes that remain and absorb enough water to form feces
Large Intestine
Chemical messenger that influences physiological processes at very low concentrations
Hormone
Produced by small intestine in response to arrival of food from the stomach
Secretin
Describe airflow through avies
It is a one-way airflow through the lung
Upon inhalation, posterior air sacs fill with outside air which then move to the lungs to the anterior air sacs where upon exhalation empty
What are the breathing control centers?
Pons and Medulla
Describe control of ventilation in the brain and body when there is a rise of CO2
Nerve signals trigger contraction of rib muscles and diaphragm, breathing control centers (Pons/Medulla) respond to drop in pH of blood, Nerve signals indicate CO2 and O2 levels
When will fish and insects increase their ventilation rate?
activity increase
Oxygen levels drop
Carbon Dioxide levels increase
What kind of flow do fish exert?
Countercurrent flow
What kind of ventilation do humans have?
Negative Pressure Ventilation
Explain respiratory process of insects
Inhaltion: muscles relax (diameter of thorax decreases), Tracheal volume increases and pressure drops, air enters along pressure gradient

Exhalation:
Muscles contract (thorax diameter increases), tracheal volume decreases and pressure increases, air leaves along pressure gradient
What is the ECM of blood?
Plasma
What is another name for WBCs and RBCs?
Leukocytes
Erythrocytes
What do mammalian RBCs lack at maturity?
nuclei and mitochondria
The rate of oxygen unloading from hemoglobin depends on what?
The partial pressure of oxygen in the tissue
What kind of binding delivers large amounts of Oxygen to resting and exercising tissues?
Cooperative Binding
This says that hemoglobin's oxygen binding affinity is inversely related to acidity and concentration of carbon dioxide
Bohr Shift
What are the parts of the circulatory system?
Muscular pump (heart)
Circulatory fluid (blood,hemolymph)
Set of tubes/vessels to carry fluid
Describe pulmonary circulation in the human heart
Blood returns to heart from body enters through superior vena cava to right atrium, blood enters right ventricle through atrioventricular valve, blood pumped from right ventricle to lungs through pulmonary artery
Describe systemic circulation in the human heart
Blood returns to left atrium from lungs, blood enters left ventricle from pulmonary veins, blood pumped from left ventricle through aorta to rest of body
These signals hyperpolarize the membrane, making the membrane potential more negative and making the neuron less likely to fire an action potential
Inhibitory
These signals depolarize the membrane, making the membrane potential less negative which are more likely to trigger an action potential
Excitatory
What is a threshold potential?
depolarization of the membrane above a certain voltage
Collect electrical signals
Dendrites
Integrate incoming signals and generates outgoing signal to axon
Cell body
Passes electrical signals to dendrites of another cell to an effector cell
Axon
What are the three kind of Neurons and what is their function?
Sensory neurons (transmit a signal based upon stimulus)
Motor neurons (sends signals to glands/muscles for response)
Interneurons (integrate sensory info)
Describe a membrane potential
difference in electrical charge on either side of plasma membrane (expresses as inside-relative-to-outside)
What are the 3 ways to reduce transmission of signal across synapse, whether excitatory or inhibitory?
Reduce amount of neurotransmitter production
Increase amount of enzyme within synapse
Reduce sensitivity of post-synaptic receptors
Go through the steps of Voluntary Action
Stimulus
Decision
Motor command
Spinal column
Muscle synapse
Muscle action
Describe the steps of reflex arc
Sensory receptor
Sensory neuron (ganglion)
CNS (spinal chord, brain)
Interneuron
PNS (nerve, motor neuron)
muscles
Describe the steps in Involuntary Action
stimulus
spinal column
muscle synapse
muscle action
Describe the Vertebrate Nervous system
Afferent division (transmits sensory info), PNS
CNS (info processing)
PNS
Efferent division (transmits motor info)
Somatic nervous system ... or
Autonomic nervous system...
Parasympathetic division or sympathetic division
What is the difference b/w afferent and efferent division?
Afferent = sensory info
Efferent = motor info
Describe the Parasympathetic nervous system
"rest and digest"
constrict pupils, stimulate salivation, slow heartbeat, constrict airways, stimulate activity of stomach, inhibit release of glucose; stimulate gallbladder, stimulates activity of intestines, contract bladder, promote erection of genitals
Describe the Sympathetic nervous system
"flight or fight"
What is the function of the four regions of the brain
Cerebrum: conscious thought, memory

Cerebellum: coordination of complex motor patterns

Brain stem: info relay and center for autonomic control for heart, lungs, digestive system

Diencephalon: info relay and control of homeostasis
sensory cells transduce external stimulus into action potentials that are sent to CNS
Signal transduction
Describe the process of a hair cell opening ion channels
Pressure bends stereocilia
K+ channels open
Depolarization
Ca2+ flows in
Synaptic vesicles fuse
Neurotransmitter released
Transmembrane protein complex that changes shape when retinal absorbs light
Rhodopsin
The functional units of insect eyes
Ommatidia
Active travel from place to place in which animals must expend energy, and why do they expend energy?
Locomotion
(need to overcome friction and gravity)
Name and define the three main types of skeletons
Hydrostatic- fluid under pressure within body

Exoskeleton- rigid, composed of non-living material.... will shed or molted

Endoskeleton- hard support system made of cartilage/bone
Describe the difference b/w axial and appendicular skeleton
Axial skeleton anchors the appendicular skeleton
locations where bones meet
joints
connect bone to bone
ligaments
Describe the neuromuscular junction and how it triggers muscle contraction
AP arrives, Ach released
Ach bind
APs propagate
Ca2+ channels open into SR
Ca2+ releases, sarcomeres contract
Region in center of retina that contains a dense concentration of cones, thereby the area of highest visual activity
Fovea
membranes that contain large quantities of transmembrane protein
opsin