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102 Cards in this Set

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Gene
A heriditary factor that influences a particular trait
In diploids, how many alleles of each gene does the genotype have?
two
In haploids, how many alleles of each gene does the genotype have?
one
homozygous
having two of the same allele
heterozygous
having two different alleles
Are pure line individuals homozygous or heterozygous?
homozygous

offspring have same phenotype
hybrid
offspring from crosses b/w homozygous parents with different genotypes

heterozygous offspring
reciprocal cross
phenotypes associated with male and female in a prior cross are reversed

-if crosses give identical results, sex of parent does not influence transmission of the trait
testcross
b/w homozygous recessive individual and an individual with the dominant phenotype & unknown genotype

-used to determine if dominant phenotype is heterozygous or homozygous
what did working with one trait at a time allow for?
1) established that blending inheritance does not occur

2) each pea plant has two of each gene

3) principle of segregation
Monohybrid Cross
b/w two heterozygous parents for same trait

Rr and Rr
Reciprocal Cross
switch maternal and paternal phenotypes from previous cross
Dihybrid Cross
b/w two heterozygous parents for 2 different traits

RrYr and RrYy
Test Cross
to find unknown genotype
cross unknown genotype individual with homozygous recessive
hybrid
offspring b/w RR and rr
two leading hypotheses for the pattern of inheritance?
blending inheritance

inheritance of acquired characteristics
blending inheritance
traits observed are a blending of mother and father’s traits
inheritance of acquired characteristics
traits observed are modified traits from parents
pure-line
individual produces identical offspring
Mendel's 5 claims?
i. Peas have two alleles
ii. Alleles do not blend together
iii. Each gamete contains one allele
iv. Male and female contribute equally to genotype of offspring
v. Alleles can be dominant or recessive
chromosome theory of inheritance
genes located on chromosomes

patterns of inheritance are determined by the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis
codominance
heterozygotes exhibit both traits seen in homozygous parents
incomplete dominance
heterozygote phenotype is a blend of both homozygous parents
linkage
physical association of two genes because they are on the same chromosome
pleiotropy
ability of a gene to affect more than one phenotypic trait
polygenic inheritance
when many genes affect one trait
recombinant
possessing a new combination of alleles
aneuploidy
having abnormal number of copies of a chromosome
central dogma
DNA-->RNA-->proteins
deleterious mutation
reduces fitness
how many codons are there?
64
inversion
segment of chromosome breaks, flips, and rejoins with a flipped orientation
knock-out allele
does not function at all
missense mutation (replacement mutation)
a point mutation that causes a change in the amino acid sequence of a protein
point mutation
change in a single base pair
one gene, one enzyme hypothesis
each gene is responsible for making one protein (usually an enzyme)
polyploidy
having more than 2 full sets of chromosomes
silent mutation
is not actively expressed
start codon?
AUG-codes for methionine
stop codons?
UAG UGA or UAA
transcription
RNA is made from a DNA template
translation
proteins and peptides are synthesized from mRNA
translocation
1) in plants, movement of sugars through phloem

2) type of mutation where a piece of chromosome moves to a non-homologous chromosome

3) ribosome moving down mRNA during translation
adventitious roots
develops from shoot system, rather than root
apical bud
a bud at the tip of the stem

growth occurs to lengthen the stem
apical meristem
a group of undifferentiated plant cells at the tip of a stem or a root

responsible for lateral growth
axillary bud
a bud that forms in the angle between a stem and a branch

may develop into lateral branch
what is bark composed of?
cork cells, cork cambium and secondary phloem
callus
a mass of undifferentiated cells that can generate roots and other tissues necessary to create a mature plant
where is cell sap found?
vacuoles
collenchyma cell
an elongated cell with cell walls thickened at the corners;supports growing plants; usually found in strands along leaf veins and stalk
companion cell
in phloem: connects via plasmodesmata to adjacent sieve tubes; provide materials to maintain sieve-tube members and function in the loading and unloading of sugars into sieve-tube members
cork cambium
type of lateral meristem; consists of a ring of undifferentiated plant cells; found just under cork layer; produces new cork cells on outer side
cork cell
waxy; in the protective most outer layer of woody plants
cortex
layer of ground tissue found outside the vascular bundles and pith of a plant stem
dermal tissue system
forms most outer layer
fiber
plants: type of sclerenchyma cell; provides support to vascular tissue
ground meristem
middle layer of a young plant embryo; gives rise to the ground tissue system
ground tissue
an embryonic layer
gives rise to parenchyma, sclerenchyma, and collenchyma
heartwood
older xylem in center of older stem/root; contains protective compounds; no longer aids in water transport
lateral meristem (cambium meristem, secondary meristem)
layer of undifferentiated plant cells found in older stems/roots; responsible for secondary growth
lenticels
spongy segments in bark; allow gas exchange between cells in a woody stem and the atmosphere
meristem
group of undifferentiated cells that can develop into various adult tissues throughout life
mucigel
slimy substance secreted by root caps;
eases passage of the growing root through the soil
parenchyma cell
involved in photosynthesis, starch storage, and new growth;
found in leaves, and centers of roots/stems and fruits; thin cell walls
perforation
small hole in primary and secondary cell walls of vessel elements; allow for the passage of water
phelloderm
in stems of woody plants; thin layer of cells b/w outer cork cells and inner cork cambium
phloem
conducts sugars; contains sieve-tube members and companion cells; primary and secondary
where does primary phloem develop from?
pro cambium of apical meristems
where does secondary phloem develop from?
vascular cambium of lateral meristems
pit
small hole in cell walls of tracheids; allow passage of water
pith
shoot systems; ground tissue located to the inside of vascular bundles
primary growth
increase in length; due to activity of apical meristems
procambium
group of cells in center of a young plant embryo; gives rise to vascular tissue
protoderm
exterior of a young plant embryo; gives rise to the epidermis
rhizome
modified stem that runs horizontally underground and produces new plants at the nodes
root cap
covers/protects tip of a plant root; senses gravity and determines direction of root growth
root hair
long/thin outgrowth of the epidermal cells of plant roots; provides increased SA for absorption of water and nutrients
sapwood
younger xylem in the outer layer of wood; water transport.
scleroid
schlerenchyma cell; protects (nutshells)
sclerenchyma cells
thick secondary cell wall; support; contains lignin, fiber, and scleroids; dead at maturity
secondary growth
increase in width due to apical meristems
sieve plate
pore-containing structure at one end of a sieve-tube member in phloem
sieve-tube member
elongated sugar-conducting cell in phloem; has sieve-plates at both ends; allows sap to flow to adjacent cells
stolon
modified stem; runs horizontally over soil surface; produces new plants at nodes
totipotent
capable of dividing and developing to produce a complete, mature organism
tracheid
long/thin; conducts water; gaps in secondary cell walls; allows h2o movement thru adjacent cells
transpiration
water loss from aboveground plant parts; primarily thru stoma
trichome
hairlike appendage; grows from epidermal cells
vascular bundle
cluster of xylem and phloem strands in a stem
vascular cambium
one of two types of lateral meristem; ring of undifferentiated plant cells in cork cambium; produces secondary xylem/phloem
vascular tissue
conducts water or solutes from one part of plant to another
vessel element
a short, wide, water-conducting cell; has gaps through primary/secondary cell walls; allows unimpeded passage of water between adjacent cells
xylem
conducts water/ions; contains tracheids and/or vessel elements; primary and secondary (wood)
where does primary xylem develop from?
pro cambium of apical meristems
where does secondary xylem come from?
vascular cambium of lateral meristems
zone of cellular division
group of apical meristematic cells; behind root cap where cells are actively dividing
zone of elongation
group of young cells; behind apical meristem; increases in length
zone of maturation
groups of plant cells (in roots) that are differentiating into mature tissues; behind root cap
flaccid
no turgor pressure (Press Potential=0)
why don't blood cells burst in the bloodstream?
they are in an isotonic enviro
ethylene
plant hormone involved in aging and ripening of fruit