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13 Cards in this Set

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What is reproductive cloning?
The cloning of adult animal cells.
How is cloning animals done?
By placing the nucleus from an adult cell into an un-nucleated egg cell. They must be synchronized to the same stage of the cell cycle (the resting stage). The the egg cell is divided and placed into a surrogate mother
How does genomic imprinting work?
By blocking the cell's ability to read certain genes, and a gene can have no impact unless it is read.
What are some problems with cloning?
Possible premature death and lack of genomic imprinting to reprogram the nuclei.
Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent.. What is that?
Cells that are able to divide and develop into any cell in the body or develop into an entire individual.
Describe embryonic stem cells.
They are present in the early embryo. They can be used to replace lost or damaged tissues because of an accident or disease.
What are the controversies about stem cell?
People argue they are destroying embryos to harvest stem cells.
Describe Gene Therapy
Using gene therapy, a patient with a genetic disorder is theoretically cured by replacing the defective gene with a healthy one.
Why do some people call it gene intervention instead of gene therapy?
Because some people think its wrong to say it 'cures' people, so they say intervention instead.
What tissues can gene intervention correct?
Somatic tissues, not germ-line tissues.. So the disorders can still be passed on to offspring.
What should happen when choosing to undergo gene intervention?
The benefits should far exeed the risks.
Why does gene therapy sometimes fail?
Because of immunological reactions to the vectors used to carry the healthy gene into the patient.
What has been the recent focus of gene therapy?
To identify a vector that avoids the problems encountered with the adenovirus vector. Scientists hope that this vector will eliminate the problems with adenovirus.